Prevalence and risk factors for depression and anxiety among outpatient migraineurs in mainland ChinaReport as inadecuate

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The Journal of Headache and Pain

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 303–310

First Online: 01 April 2012Received: 04 November 2011Accepted: 16 March 2012


This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety and depression symptoms in outpatient migraineurs in mainland China. In addition, we evaluated whether the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale HADS provided sufficient validity to screen depression and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively at our headache clinic. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition ICHD-II. Demographic characteristics and clinical features were collected by headache questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms about migraineurs were assessed using HADS. Several questionnaires were simultaneously used to evaluate patients with depressive disorder including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 HAMD, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale HAMA and HADS. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to test the validity of HADS. 176 outpatients with migraine 81.8 % female were included. Overall, 17.6 and 38.1 % participants had depression and anxiety, respectively. Possible risk factors for depression in migraineurs included headache intensity of first onset of migraine, migraine with presymptom, migraine with family history and migraine disability. The possible risk factors for anxiety included fixed attack time of headache in one day and poor sleeping, and age represented a protective factor for anxiety. The correlation coefficient of HADS-A and HADS-D with HAMA and HAMD was 0.666 and 0.508, respectively P < 0.01. This study demonstrates that depression and anxiety comorbidity in our mainland Chinese migraineurs are also common, and several risk factors were identified that may provide predictive value. These findings can help clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression in order to improve migraine management.

KeywordsAnxiety Cross-sectional study Depression Migraine Risk factor AbbreviationsHADSHospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

ICHD-IIInternational Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition

MIDASThe migraine disability assessment questionnaire

MAMigraine with aura

MOAMigraine without aura

EMEpisodic migraine

CMChronic migraine

ANXAnxiety symptoms

DEPDepression symptoms

HADS-AHospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety subscale

HADS-DHospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression subscale

HAMDHamilton Depression Rating Scale

HAMAHamilton Anxiety Rating Scale

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Author: Na Yong - Hua Hu - Xiaoping Fan - Xuelian Li - Li Ran - Yuan Qu - Yunfeng Wang - Ge Tan - Lixue Chen - Jiying Zhou


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