Complications and salvage options after laser lithotripsy for a vesical calculus in a tetraplegic patient: a case reportReportar como inadecuado




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Patient Safety in Surgery

, 9:3

First Online: 23 January 2015Received: 10 November 2014Accepted: 19 December 2014

Abstract

BackgroundLaser lithotripsy of vesical calculi in tetraplegic subjects with long-term urinary catheters is fraught with complications because of bladder wall oedema, infection, fragile urothelium, bladder spasms, and autonomic dysreflexia. Severe haematuria should be anticipated; failure to institute measures to minimise bleeding and prevent clot retention can be catastrophic. We present an illustrative case.

Case presentationA tetraplegic patient underwent laser lithotripsy of vesical stone under general anaesthesia. During lithotripsy, severe bladder spasms and consequent rise in blood pressure occurred. Bleeding continued post-operatively resulting in clot retention. CT revealed clots within distended but intact bladder. Clots were sucked out and continuous bladder irrigation was commenced. Bleeding persisted; patient developed repeated clot retention. Cystoscopy was performed to remove clots. Patient developed abdominal distension. Bladder rupture was suspected; bed-side ultrasound scan revealed diffuse small bowel dilatation with mild peritoneal effusion; under-filled bladder containing small clot. Patient developed massive abdominal distension and ileus. Two days later, CT with oral positive contrast revealed intra-peritoneal haematoma at the dome of bladder with perforation at the site of haematoma. Free fluid was noted within the peritoneal cavity. This patient was managed by gastric drainage and intravenous fluids. Patient-s condition improved gradually with urethral catheter drainage. Follow-up CT revealed resolution of bladder rupture, perivesical haematoma, and intra-peritoneal free fluid.

ConclusionIf bleeding occurs, bladder irrigation should be commenced immediately after surgery to prevent clot retention. When bladder rupture is suspected, CT of abdomen should be done instead of ultrasound scan, which may not reveal bladder perforation. It is debatable whether laparotomy and repair of bladder rupture is preferable to nonoperative management in tetraplegics. Anti-muscarinic drugs should be prescribed prior to lithotripsy to control bladder spasms; aspirin and ibuprofen should be omitted. If significant bleeding occurs during lithotripsy, procedure should be stopped and rescheduled. Percutaneous cystolithotripsy using a wide channel could be quicker to clear stones, as larger fragments could be retrieved; lesser stimulant for triggering autonomic dysreflexia, as it avoids urethral manipulation. But in patients with small, contracted bladder, and protuberant abdomen, percutaneous access to urinary bladder may be difficult and can result in injury to bowels.

KeywordsSpinal cord injury Tetraplegia Neuropathic urinary bladder Vesical calculus Laser lithotripsy Complications Bladder perforation  Download fulltext PDF



Autor: Subramanian Vaidyanathan - Gurpreet Singh - Fahed Selmi - Peter L Hughes - Bakul M Soni - Tun Oo

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13037-014-0052-3



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