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1 LAUM - Laboratoire d-acoustique de l-université du Maine 2 GIPSA-CICS - CICS GIPSA-DIS - Département Images et Signal 3 CIT 4 6-COM - Systèmes de Communications

Abstract : This chapter is attempted to provide a survey of the advanced concepts and related issues involved in Multiple Input Multiple Output MIMO systems. MIMO system technology has been considered as a really significant foundation on which to build the next and future generations of wireless networks. The chapter addresses advanced MIMO techniques such as polarization diversity and antenna selection. We gradually provide an overview of the MIMO features from basic to more advanced topics. The first sections of this chapter start by introducing the key aspects of theMIMO theory. TheMIMO systemmodel is first presented in a genericway. Then, we proceed to describe diversity schemes used in MIMO systems. MIMO technology could exploit several diversity techniques beyond the spatial diversity. These techniques essentially cover frequency diversity, time diversity and polarization diversity. We further provide the reader with a geometrically based models for MIMO systems. The virtue of this channel modeling is to adopt realisticmethods for modeling the spatio-temporal channel statistics from a physical wave-propagation viewpoint. Two classes for MIMO channel modeling will be described. These models involve the Geometry-based Stochastic ChannelModels GSCM and the Stochastic channel models. Besides the listedMIMO channel models already described, we derive and discuss capacity formulas for transmission over MIMO systems. The achieved MIMO capacities highlight the potential of spatial diversity for improving the spectral efficiency of MIMO channels. When Channel State Information CSI is available at both ends of the transmission link, the MIMO system capacity is optimally derived by using adaptive power allocation based on water-filling technique. The chapter continues by examining the combining techniques for multiple antenna systems. Combining techniques are motivated for MIMO systems since they enable the signal to noise ratio SNR maximization at the combiner output. The fundamental combing techniques are the Maximal Ratio Combining MRC, the Selection Combining SC and the Equal Gain CombiningEGC. Once the combining techniques are analyzed, the reader is introduced to the beamforming processing as an optimal strategy for combining. The use of multiple antennas significantly improves the channel spectral efficiency. Nevertheless, this induces higher system complexity of the communication system and the communication system performance is effected due to correlation between antennas that need to be deployed at the same terminal. As such, the antenna selection algorithm for MIMO systems is presented. To elaborate on this point, we introduce Space time coding techniques for MIMO systems and we evaluate by simulation the performance of the communication system. Next, we emphasis on multi polarization techniques for MIMO systems. As a background, we presume that the reader has a thorough understanding of antenna theory. We recall the basic antenna theory and concepts that are used throughout the rest of the chapter. We rigorously introduce the 3D channel model over the Non-Line of Sight NLOS propagation channel for MIMO system with polarized antennas. We treat the depolarization phenomena and we study its effect on MIMO system capacity. The last section of the chapter provides a scenario for collaborative sensor nodes performing distributed MIMO system model which is devoted to sensor node localization in Wireless Sensor Networks. The localization algorithm is based on beamforming processing and was tested by simulation. Our chapter provides the reader by simulation examples for almost all the topics that have been treated for MIMO system development and key issues affecting achieved performance.

Autor: Kosai Raoof - Maha Ben Zid - Nuttapol Prayongpun - Ammar Bouallegue -



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