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Cardiovascular Diabetology

, 4:9

First Online: 28 June 2005Received: 23 March 2005Accepted: 28 June 2005


The vascular endothelial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix is a compilation of different macromolecules organized by physical entanglements, opposing ionic charges, chemical covalent bonding, and cross-linking into a biomechanically active polymer. These matrices provide a gel-like form and scaffolding structure with regional tensile strength provided by collagens, elasticity by elastins, adhesiveness by structural glycoproteins, compressibility by proteoglycans – hyaluronans, and communicability by a family of integrins, which exchanges information between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues.

Each component of the extracellular matrix and specifically the capillary basement membrane possesses unique structural properties and interactions with one another, which determine the separate and combined roles in the multiple diabetic complications or diabetic opathies.

Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their parallel companion atheroscleropathy are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities and chronic injurious stimuli. The adaptable quality of a matrix or form genetically preloaded with the necessary information to communicate and respond to an ever-changing environment, which supports the interstitium, capillary and arterial vessel wall is individually examined.

KeywordsAtherosclerosis Collagen elastin proteoglycan structural glycoprotein Integrin oxidative stress redox stress MMP TIMP remodeling List of abbreviationsAGEadvanced glycosylation endproducts

BMsbasement membranes

CBMcapillary basement membrane

ECMextracellular matrix


HSPGheparan sulfate proteoglycans

IGTimpaired glucose tolerance

IRinsulin resistance

MetSmetabolic syndrome

MMPsmatrix metalloproteinases


PKCprotein kinase C

RAGEreceptor for advanced glycosylation endproducts

RGDarginine-glycine-aspartic acid sequence

ROSreactive oxygen species

T2DMtype 2 diabetes mellitus

TIMPtissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1475-2840-4-9 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Melvin R Hayden - James R Sowers - Suresh C Tyagi


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