Labeling of Chromosomes in Cell Development and the Appearance of Monozygotic TwinsReportar como inadecuado

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BioMed Research International - Volume 2015 2015, Article ID 628092, 8 pages -

Research ArticleDepartment of Computer Science, The George Washington University, 2121 Eye Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA

Received 24 March 2015; Accepted 8 June 2015

Academic Editor: Manoor Prakash Hande

Copyright © 2015 Carol Jim and Simon Berkovich. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Understanding the mechanism behind the structure of the internal cellular clock can lead to advances in the knowledge of origins of pairs of monozygotic twins and higher order multiples as well as other biological phenomena. To gain insight into this mechanism, we analyze possible cell labeling schemes that model an organism’s development. Our findings lead us to predict that monozygotic quadruplets are not quadruplets in the traditional sense but rather two pairs of monozygotic twins where the pairs slightly differ—a situation we coin quadruplet twins. From the considered model, the probability of monozygotic twins is found to be , and we discover that the probability of monozygotic quadruplets, or triplets as in the case of the death of an embryo, is , where K is a species-specific integer representing the number of pairs of homologous chromosomes. The parameter K may determine cancerization with a probability threshold that is approximately inversely proportional to the Hayflick limit. Exposure to some cancerization factors such as small levels of ionizing radiation and chemical pollution may not produce cancer.

Autor: Carol Jim and Simon Berkovich



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