Adverse effect profile of trichlormethiazide: a retrospective observational studyReport as inadecuate




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Cardiovascular Diabetology

, 10:45

First Online: 23 May 2011Received: 24 February 2011Accepted: 23 May 2011

Abstract

BackgroundTrichlormethiazide, a thiazide diuretic, was introduced in 1960 and remains one of the most frequently used diuretics for treating hypertension in Japan. While numerous clinical trials have indicated important side effects of thiazides, e.g., adverse effects on electrolytes and uric acid, very few data exist on serum electrolyte levels in patients with trichlormethiazide treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study to assess the adverse effects of trichlormethiazide, focusing on serum electrolyte and uric acid levels.

MethodsWe used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2010, to identify cohorts of new trichlormethiazide users n = 99 for 1 mg, n = 61 for 2 mg daily dosage and an equal number of non-users control. We used propensity-score matching to adjust for differences between users and control for each dosage, and compared serum chemical data including serum sodium, potassium, uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of trichlormethiazide of 1 mg and 2 mg users was 58 days and 64 days, respectively.

ResultsThe mean age was 66 years, and 55% of trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose were female. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the mean age was 68 years, and 43% of users were female. There were no statistically significant differences in all covariates age, sex, comorbid diseases, past drugs, and current antihypertensive drugs between trichlormethiazide users and controls for both doses. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the reduction of serum potassium level and the elevation of serum uric acid level were significant compared with control, whereas changes of mean serum sodium, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were not significant. In trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose, all tests showed no statistically significant change from baseline to during the exposure period in comparison with control.

ConclusionsOur study showed adverse effects of decreased serum potassium and increased serum uric acid with trichlormethiazide treatment, and suggested that a lower dose of trichlormethiazide may minimize these adverse effects. These findings support the current trend in hypertension therapeutics to shift towards lower doses of thiazides.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1475-2840-10-45 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Yasuo Takahashi, Yayoi Nishida contributed equally to this work.

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Author: Yasuo Takahashi - Yayoi Nishida - Tomohiro Nakayama - Satoshi Asai

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1475-2840-10-45







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