Dietary saturated fat-cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigsReport as inadecuate




Dietary saturated fat-cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

Cardiovascular Diabetology

, 10:64

First Online: 14 July 2011Received: 18 April 2011Accepted: 14 July 2011

Abstract

BackgroundDiabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet.

MethodsStreptozotocin-diabetic pigs ~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental 40% of dietary energy saturated fat-cholesterol SFC, unsaturated fat UF or starch S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study.

ResultsFasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher p < 0.01 in SFC compared to UF and S pigs. Fasting plasma NEFA concentrations mmol-L were highest p < 0.05 in SFC 1.09 ± 0.17, intermediate in UF 0.80 ± 0.14 and lowest in S pigs 0.58 ± 0.14 whereas plasma glucose ~13 mmol-L, triglyceride ~0.5 mmol-L and insulin ~24 pmol-L concentrations were comparable among SFC, UF and S pigs. The postprandial response area under the curves AUC, 0-4 h for glucose but not for insulin and triglyceride responses were intermediate in SFC 617 ± 144 and lowest p < 0.05 in UF 378 ± 157 compared to S pigs 925 ± 139. Fasting hepatic glucose production, hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity and blood pressure were not different among pigs. C-reactive protein CRP concentrations mg-L were highest p < 0.05 in SFC 25 ± 4, intermediate in S 21 ± 3 and lowest in UF pigs 14 ± 2. Liver weights, liver and muscle triglyceride concentrations, and the surface area of aorta fatty streaks were highest p < 0.01 in SFC pigs. A positive correlation between postprandial plasma CRP and aorta fatty streaks was observed in SFC pigs R = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight g was intermediate in SFC 260 ± 72, lowest in S 135 ± 51 and highest p < 0.05 in UF 571 ± 95 pigs.

ConclusionDietary saturated fat-cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

KeywordsDiabetes Insulin Diet Unsaturated fat Saturated fat Cholesterol Inflammation C-reactive protein Atherosclerosis Pigs AbbreviationsAUCarea under the curve

CRPC-reactive protein

MEmetabolizable energy

NEFAnon-esterified fatty acids

PPARperoxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PUFApolyunsaturated fatty acids

Sstarch

SFCsaturated fat with cholesterol

STZstreptozotocin

TZDthiazolidinedione

UFunsaturated fat.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1475-2840-10-64 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Sietse J Koopmans - Ruud Dekker - Mariette T Ackermans - Hans P Sauerwein - Mireille J Serlie - Heleen MM van Beusekom

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1475-2840-10-64







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