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EJNMMI Research

, 1:17

First Online: 22 August 2011Received: 20 May 2011Accepted: 22 August 2011


Nuclear medicine has become a key part of molecular imaging. In the present review article, we focus on the transbilayer phospholipids as exquisite targets for radiolabelled probes in molecular imaging. Asymmetry of phospholipid distribution is a characteristic of mammalian cell membranes. Phosphatidylcholine and sphyngomyelin cholinophospholipids are primarily located within the external leaflet of the cell membrane. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine aminophospholipids, and also phosphatidylinositol are primarily located within the internal leaflet of the cell membrane. New radiolabelled tracers have been designed in preclinical and clinical research for PET-CT and SPECT-CT molecular imaging of transbilayer phospholipids.

Keywordsphospholipids molecular imaging PET-CT SPECT-CT AbbreviationsAAamino acids

ATPadenosine triphosphate

CTcomputed tomography

C2A-GSTC2A Synaptotagmin domain I glutathione-S-transferase

CA4Pcombretastatin A4 phosphate


DOTA1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N-, N″, N″-tetraacetic acid

ECMexternal leaflet of the cell membrane

FITCfluorescein isothiocyanate




HYNIChydrazinonicotinamide est in example with complete enumeration

e.g.exampli gratia for example with incomplete enumeration

ICMinternal leaflet of the cell membrane


10 Mnanomolar

MImolecular imaging

MRImagnetic resonance imaging

MWmolecular weight

NSCLCnon-small cell lung cancer

PAphosphatidic acid



PET-CTpositron emission tomography-computed tomography

p.ipost-intra-venous injection


PIPphosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

PIP 2phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate

PIP 3phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate


SAACsingle amino acid chelator


SPECT-CTsingle-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography

TRAILtumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

TUNELterminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-2191-219X-1-17 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Tarik Z Belhocine - Frank S Prato


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