Simultaneous three-dimensional myocardial T1 and T2 mapping in one breath hold with 3D-QALASReport as inadecuate

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Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

, 16:102

First Online: 20 December 2014Received: 27 February 2014Accepted: 21 November 2014


BackgroundQuantification of the longitudinal- and transverse relaxation time in the myocardium has shown to provide important information in cardiac diagnostics. Methods for cardiac relaxation time mapping generally demand a long breath hold to measure either T1 or T2 in a single 2D slice. In this paper we present and evaluate a novel method for 3D interleaved T1 and T2 mapping of the whole left ventricular myocardium within a single breath hold of 15 heartbeats.

MethodsThe 3D-QALAS 3D-quantification using an interleaved Look-Locker acquisition sequence with T2 preparation pulse is based on a 3D spoiled Turbo Field Echo sequence using inversion recovery with interleaved T2 preparation. Quantification of both T1 and T2 in a volume of 13 slices with a resolution of 2.0x2.0x6.0 mm is obtained from five measurements by using simulations of the longitudinal magnetizations Mz. This acquisition scheme is repeated three times to sample k-space. The method was evaluated both in-vitro validated against Inversion Recovery and Multi Echo and in-vivo validated against MOLLI and Dual Echo.

ResultsIn-vitro, a strong relation was found between 3D-QALAS and Inversion Recovery R = 0.998; N = 10; p < 0.01 and between 3D-QALAS and Multi Echo R = 0.996; N = 10; p < 0.01. The 3D-QALAS method showed no dependence on e.g. heart rate in the interval of 40–120 bpm. In healthy myocardium, the mean T1 value was 1083 ± 43 ms mean ± SD for 3D-QALAS and 1089 ± 54 ms for MOLLI, while the mean T2 value was 50.4 ± 3.6 ms 3D-QALAS and 50.3 ± 3.5 ms for Dual Echo. No significant difference in in-vivo relaxation times was found between 3D-QALAS and MOLLI N = 10; p = 0.65 respectively 3D-QALAS and Dual Echo N = 10; p = 0.925 for the ten healthy volunteers.

ConclusionsThe 3D-QALAS method has demonstrated good accuracy and intra-scan variability both in-vitro and in-vivo. It allows rapid acquisition and provides quantitative information of both T1 and T2 relaxation times in the same scan with full coverage of the left ventricle, enabling clinical application in a broader spectrum of cardiac disorders.

KeywordsRelaxation time T1 mapping T2 mapping Three-dimensional Myocardium Cardiovascular magnetic resonance Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12968-014-0102-0 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Sofia Kvernby - Marcel Jan Bertus Warntjes - Henrik Haraldsson - Carl-Johan Carlhäll - Jan Engvall - Tino Ebbers


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