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BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

, 16:124

Epidemiology of musculoskeletal disorders


BackgroundMuscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density BMD at the hip in women aged 26–97 years.

MethodsThis cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester. The maximal measure from three trials on each leg was used for analyses. BMD was measured at the hip using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry DXA; Lunar DPX-L. Total lean mass, body fat mass and appendicular lean mass were determined from whole body DXA scans. Linear regression techniques were used with muscle strength as the independent variable and BMD as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age and indices of body composition.

ResultsMeasures of age-adjusted hip flexor strength and hip abductor strength were positively associated with total hip BMD. For each standard deviation SD increase in hip flexor strength, the increase in mean total hip BMD SD was 10.4 % p = 0.009. A similar pattern was observed for hip abductor strength, with an increase in mean total hip BMD of 22.8 % p = 0.025. All associations between hip muscle strength and total hip BMD were independent of height, but were nullified after adjusting for appendicular lean mass or total lean mass.

ConclusionsThere was a positive association observed between muscle strength and BMD at the hip. However, this association was explained by measures of lean mass.

KeywordsBody composition Bone mineral density Lean mass Muscle strength Women AbbreviationsALMAppendicular lean mass

ANOVAAnalysis of variance

BMDBone mineral density

DXADual energy x-ray absorptiometry

GOSGeelong osteoporosis study

MMTManual muscle tester

SDStandard deviation

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Author: Julie A. Pasco - Kara L. Holloway - Sharon L. Brennan-Olsen - David J. Moloney - Mark A. Kotowicz


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