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Insights into Imaging

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 347–362

First Online: 20 March 2015Received: 25 November 2014Revised: 29 January 2015Accepted: 04 February 2015

AbstractFocal nodular hyperplasia FNH and hepatocellular adenomas HCAs constitute benign hepatic neoplasms in adults. HCAs are monoclonal neoplasms characterised by an increased predilection to haemorrhage and also malignant transformation. On the other hand, FNH is a polyclonal tumour-like lesion that occurs in response to increased perfusion and has an uneventful clinical course. Recent advances in molecular genetics and genotype-phenotype correlation in these hepatocellular neoplasms have enabled a new classification system. FNHs are classified into the typical and atypical types based on histomorphological and imaging features. HCAs have been categorised into four subtypes: 1 HCAs with HNF-1α mutations are diffusely steatotic, do not undergo malignant transformation, and are associated with familial diabetes or adenomatosis. 2 Inflammatory HCAs are hypervascular with marked peliosis and a tendency to bleed. They are associated with obesity, alcohol and hepatic steatosis. 3 HCAs with β-catenin mutations are associated with male hormone administration and glycogen storage disease, frequently undergo malignant transformation and may simulate hepatocellular carcinoma on imaging. 4 The final type is unclassified HCAs. Each of these except the unclassified subtype has a few distinct imaging features, often enabling reasonably accurate diagnosis. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis is helpful in difficult cases and has strong implications for patient management.

Teaching points• FNHs are benign polyclonal neoplasms with no risk of haemorrhage or malignancy.

• HCAs are benign monoclonal neoplasms classified into four subtypes based on immunohistochemistry.

• Inflammatory HCAs show an atoll sign with a risk of bleeding and malignant transformation.

• HNF-1α HCAs are steatotic HCAs with minimal complications and the best prognosis.

• β-Catenin HCA shows variable MRI features and a high risk of malignancy.

KeywordsFocal nodular hyperplasia Hepatocellular adenoma MRI Molecular genetics Immunohistochemistry  Download fulltext PDF

Autor: Maneesh Khanna - Subramaniyan Ramanathan - Najla Fasih - Nicola Schieda - Vivek Virmani - Matthew D. F. McInnes


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