Protective role of oleic acid against cardiovascular insulin resistance and in the early and late cellular atherosclerotic processReport as inadecuate

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Cardiovascular Diabetology

, 14:75

First Online: 10 June 2015Received: 10 March 2015Accepted: 29 May 2015


BackgroundSeveral translational studies have identified the differential role between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids at cardiovascular level. However, the molecular mechanisms that support the protective role of oleate in cardiovascular cells are poorly known. For these reasons, we studied the protective role of oleate in the insulin resistance and in the atherosclerotic process at cellular level such as in cardiomyocytes CMs, vascular smooth muscle cells VSMCs and endothelial cells ECs.

MethodsThe effect of oleate in the cardiovascular insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction, inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs were analyzed by Western blot, qRT-PCR, BrdU incorporation and cell cycle analysis.

ResultsPalmitate induced insulin resistance. However, oleate not only did not induce cardiovascular insulin resistance but also had a protective effect against insulin resistance induced by palmitate or TNFα. One mechanism involved might be the prevention by oleate of JNK-1-2 or NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α or palmitate. Oleate reduced MCP-1 and ICAM-1 and increased eNOS expression induced by proinflammatory cytokines in ECs. Furthermore, oleate impaired the proliferation induced by TNF-α, angiotensin II or palmitate and the apoptosis induced by TNF-α or thapsigargin in VSMCs.

ConclusionsOur data suggest a differential role between oleate and palmitate and support the concept of the cardioprotector role of oleate as the main lipid component of virgin olive oil. Thus, oleate protects against cardiovascular insulin resistance, improves endothelial dysfunction in response to proinflammatory signals and finally, reduces proliferation and apoptosis in VSMCs that may contribute to an ameliorated atherosclerotic process and plaque stability.

KeywordsFatty acids Atherosclerosis Insulin resistance AbbreviationsAKTProtein kinase A

CMsCardiomyocyte cells

ECsEndothelial cells

eNOSEndothelial nitric oxide synthase

ERK-1-2Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

ICAM-1Intercellular adhesion molecule 1

iNOSInducible nitric oxide synthase

IRS-1Insulin receptor substrate 1

MCP-1Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

NF-κBNuclear factor kappa B

OAOleic acid

PAPalmitic acid

PAI-1Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

qRT-PCRQuantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

VSMCsVascular smooth muscle cells

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12933-015-0237-9 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Liliana Perdomo - Nuria Beneit - Yolanda F. Otero - Óscar Escribano - Sabela Díaz-Castroverde - Almudena Gómez-Hernánde


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