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Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

, 18:22

First Online: 12 April 2016Received: 22 December 2015Accepted: 22 March 2016


Arterial spin labeling ASL is a cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR technique for mapping regional myocardial blood flow. It does not require any contrast agents, is compatible with stress testing, and can be performed repeatedly or even continuously. ASL-CMR has been performed with great success in small-animals, but sensitivity to date has been poor in large animals and humans and remains an active area of research. This review paper summarizes the development of ASL-CMR techniques, current state-of-the-art imaging methods, the latest findings from pre-clinical and clinical studies, and future directions. We also explain how successful developments in brain ASL and small-animal ASL-CMR have helped to inform developments in large animal and human ASL-CMR.

KeywordsMyocardial perfusion Arterial spin labeling Cardiovascular magnetic resonance Ischemic heart disease Abbreviations1.5 T1.5 Tesla


3 T3 Tesla

ASLarterial spin labeling

ATTarterial transit time

BBBblood - brain barrier

BLOSMblock low-rank sparsity with motion guidance

CADcoronary artery disease

CBFcerebral blood flow

CHDcoronary heart disease

CKDchronic kidney disease

CMRcardiovascular magnetic resonance


ESRDend-stage renal disease

EPIecho-planar Imaging

EPISTAREPI signal tagging with alternating radiofrequency

FAIRflow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery

FLASHfast low angle shot

GBCAGadolinium-based contrast agents


GRAPPAgeneralized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions

GREgradient echo

HRheart rate

k-t PCAk-space-time principle component analysis

k-t SENSEk-space-time sensitivity encoding

LLFAIRLook-Locker flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery

LLFAIRGELook-Locker flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery respiratory gated

LVleft ventricle

MBFmyocardial blood flow

MBVmyocardial blood volume

nNOSneuronal nitric oxide synthase

PASLpulsed arterial spin labeling

PCASLpsuedo-continuous arterial spin labeling

PETpositron emission tomography

PNphysiological noise


SNRsignal - to - noise ratio

spASLsteady pulsed arterial spin labeling

SPECTsingle-photon emission computed tomography

SSFPsteady - state free precession

Time-SLIPtime-spatial inversion pulse

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Autor: Frank Kober - Terrence Jao - Thomas Troalen - Krishna S. Nayak


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