en fr Multiple Sensor Fusion for Detection, Classification and Tracking of Moving Objects in Driving Environments Fusion multi-capteur pour la detection, classification et suivi dobjets mobiles en environnement routier Reportar como inadecuado




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1 AMA - Analyse de données, Modélisation et Apprentissage automatique Grenoble LIG - Laboratoire d-Informatique de Grenoble

Abstract : Advanced driver assistance systems ADAS help drivers to perform complex driving tasks and to avoid or mitigate dangerous situations. The vehicle senses the external world using sensors and then builds and updates an internal model of the environment configuration. Vehicle perception consists of establishing the spatial and temporal relationships between the vehicle and the static and moving obstacles in the environment. Vehicle perception is composed of two main tasks: simultaneous localization and mapping SLAM deals with modelling static parts; and detection and tracking moving objects DATMO is responsible for modelling moving parts of the environment. The perception output is used to reason and decide which driving actions are the best for specific driving situations. In order to perform a good reasoning and control, the system has to correctly model the surrounding environment. The accurate detection and classification of moving objects is a critical aspect of a moving object tracking system. Therefore, many sensors are part of a common intelligent vehicle system.Multiple sensor fusion has been a topic of research since long; the reason is the need to combine information from different views of the environment to obtain a more accurate model. This is achieved by combining redundant and complementary measurements of the environment. Fusion can be performed at different levels inside the perception task.Classification of moving objects is needed to determine the possible behaviour of the objects surrounding the vehicle, and it is usually performed at tracking level. Knowledge about the class of moving objects at detection level can help to improve their tracking, reason about their behaviour, and decide what to do according to their nature. Most of the current perception solutions consider classification information only as aggregate information for the final perception output.Also, the management of incomplete information is an important issue in these perception systems. Incomplete information can be originated from sensor-related reasons, such as calibration issues and hardware malfunctions; or from scene perturbations, like occlusions, weather issues and object shifting. It is important to manage these situations by taking into account the degree of imprecision and uncertainty into the perception process.The main contributions in this dissertation focus on the DATMO stage of the perception problem. Precisely, we believe that including the object-s class as a key element of the object-s representation and managing the uncertainty from multiple sensors detections, we can improve the results of the perception task, i.e., a more reliable list of moving objects of interest represented by their dynamic state and appearance information. Therefore, we address the problems of sensor data association, and sensor fusion for object detection, classification, and tracking at different levels within the DATMO stage. We believe that a richer list of tracked objects can improve future stages of an ADAS and enhance its final results. Although we focus on a set of three main sensors: radar, lidar, and camera, we propose a modifiable architecture to include other type or number of sensors. First, we define a composite object representation to include class information as a part of the object state from early stages to the final output of the perception task. Second, we propose, implement, and compare two different perception architectures to solve the DATMO problem according to the level where object association, fusion, and classification information is included and performed. Our data fusion approaches are based on the evidential framework, which is used to manage and include the uncertainty from sensor detections and object classifications. Third, we propose an evidential data association approach to establish a relationship between two sources of evidence from object detections. We apply this approach at tracking level to fuse information from two track representations, and at detection level to find the relations between observations and to fuse their representations. We observe how the class information improves the final result of the DATMO component. Fourth, we integrate the proposed fusion approaches as a part of a real-time vehicle application. This integration has been performed in a real vehicle demonstrator from the interactIVe European project. Finally, we analysed and experimentally evaluated the performance of the proposed methods. We compared our evidential fusion approaches against each other and against a state-of-the-art method using real data from different driving scenarios and focusing on the detection, classification and tracking of different moving objects: pedestrian, bike, car and truck. We obtained promising results from our proposed approaches and empirically showed how our composite representation can improve the final result when included at different stages of the perception task.

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Keywords : intelligent vehicles Multiple sensor fusion multiple object detection & tracking

Mots-clés : fusion multi-capteur vehicules intelligents perception DATMO classification Dempster-Shafer theory





Autor: R. Omar Chavez-Garcia -

Fuente: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/



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