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International Journal of NephrologyVolume 2012 2012, Article ID 304135, 6 pages

Research Article

College of Dentistry, University of Saskatchewan, 105 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5E4

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9

Saskatchewan Transplant Program, St. Paul’s Hospital, 1702, 20th Street West, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7M 0Z9

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8

Received 20 August 2012; Accepted 9 October 2012

Academic Editor: Vladimír Tesař

Copyright © 2012 A. Hedayat et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Morphological characterization of hemodialysis membranes is necessary to improve pore design. Aim. To delineate membrane pore structure of a high flux filter, Polyflux 210H. Methods. We used a Joel JSM-6010LV scanning electron microscope SEM and a SU6600 Hitachi field emission scanning electron microscope FESEM to characterize the pore and fiber morphology. The maximal diameters of selected uremic toxins were calculated using the macromolecular modeling Crystallographic Object-Oriented Toolkit COOT software. Results. The mean pore densities on the outermost and innermost surfaces of the membrane were 36.81% and 5.45%, respectively. The membrane exhibited a tortuous structure with poor connection between the inner and outer pores. The aperture’s width in the inner surface ranged between 34 and 45 nm, which is 8.76–11.60 times larger than the estimated maximum diameter of β2-microglobulin 3.88 nm. Conclusion. The results suggest that the diameter size of inner pore apertures is not a limiting factor to middle molecules clearance, the extremely diminished density is. Increasing inner pore density and improving channel structure are strategies to improve clearance of middle molecules.

Autor: A. Hedayat, J. Szpunar, N. A. P. Kiran Kumar, R. Peace, H. Elmoselhi, and A. Shoker



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