Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres Mollusca resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneityReportar como inadecuado




Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres Mollusca resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity - Descarga este documento en PDF. Documentación en PDF para descargar gratis. Disponible también para leer online.

BMC Evolutionary Biology

, 10:70

First Online: 09 March 2010Received: 04 June 2009Accepted: 09 March 2010

Abstract

BackgroundThe 18S rRNA gene is one of the most important molecular markers, used in diverse applications such as molecular phylogenetic analyses and biodiversity screening. The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body plans and ecological adaptations. Although an enormous amount of 18S data is available for higher mollusks, data on some early branching lineages are still limited. Despite of some partial success in obtaining these data from Solenogastres, by some regarded to be the most -basal- mollusks, this taxon still remained problematic due to contamination with food organisms and general amplification difficulties.

ResultsWe report here the first authentic 18S genes of three Solenogastres species Mollusca, each possessing a unique sequence composition with regions conspicuously rich in guanine and cytosine. For these GC-rich regions we calculated strong secondary structures. The observed high intra-molecular forces hamper standard amplification and appear to increase formation of chimerical sequences caused by contaminating foreign DNAs from potential prey organisms. In our analyses, contamination was avoided by using RNA as a template. Indication for contamination of previously published Solenogastres sequences is presented. Detailed phylogenetic analyses were conducted using RNA specific models that account for compensatory substitutions in stem regions.

ConclusionsThe extreme morphological diversity of mollusks is mirrored in the molecular 18S data and shows elevated substitution rates mainly in three higher taxa: true limpets Patellogastropoda, Cephalopoda and Solenogastres. Our phylogenetic tree based on 123 species, including representatives of all mollusk classes, shows limited resolution at the class level but illustrates the pitfalls of artificial groupings formed due to shared biased sequence composition.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2148-10-70 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Achim Meyer - Christiane Todt - Nina T Mikkelsen - Bernhard Lieb

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/1471-2148-10-70







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