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BMC Genomics

, 6:58

First Online: 26 April 2005Received: 14 December 2004Accepted: 26 April 2005


BackgroundHookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum.

ResultsTranscripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 in infective L3 and vit-3 in adults. Over 80% of the genes have homologs in C. elegans, and nearly 30% of these were with observable RNA interference phenotypes. Homologies were identified to nematode-specific and clade V specific gene families. To study the evolution of hookworm genes, 574 A. caninum - A. ceylanicum orthologs were identified, all of which were found to be under purifying selection with distribution ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous amino acid substitutions similar to that reported for C. elegans - C. briggsae orthologs. The phylogenetic distance between A. caninum and A. ceylanicum is almost identical to that for C. elegans - C. briggsae.

ConclusionThe genes discovered should substantially accelerate research toward better understanding of the parasites- basic biology as well as new therapies including vaccines and novel anthelmintics.

List of abbreviations usedAdadult parasite stage

BLASTbasic local alignment search tool

dNnon-synonymous substitutions

dSsynonymous substitutions

ESTexpression sequence tag

GOgene ontology

iL3infective third larval stage

KEGGKyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes

PCRpolymerase chain reaction

ssL3serum-stimulated L3

taL3tissue-arrested L3.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2164-6-58 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Makedonka Mitreva, James P McCarter contributed equally to this work.

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Autor: Makedonka Mitreva - James P McCarter - Prema Arasu - John Hawdon - John Martin - Mike Dante - Todd Wylie - Jian Xu - Jaso


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