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Mobile Information Systems - Volume 2016 2016, Article ID 3464392, 20 pages -

Research Article

College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

Mathematics and Computer Science Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El Kom 32511, Egypt

Computer Science Department, Riyadh Community College, King Saud University, Riyadh 11437, Saudi Arabia

Received 10 July 2016; Revised 28 September 2016; Accepted 12 October 2016

Academic Editor: Chakchai So-In

Copyright © 2016 Omar Said and Amr Tolba. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A dual coverage system for Internet of Things IoT environments is introduced. This system is used to connect IoT nodes regardless of their locations. The proposed system has three different architectures, which are based on satellites and High Altitude Platforms HAPs. In case of Internet coverage problems, the Internet coverage will be replaced with the Satellite-HAP network coverage under specific restrictions such as loss and delay. According to IoT requirements, the proposed architectures should include multiple levels of satellites or HAPs, or a combination of both, to cover the global Internet things. It was shown that the Satellite-HAP-HAP-Things architecture provides the largest coverage area. A network simulation package, NS2, was used to test the performance of the proposed multilevel architectures. The results indicated that the HAP-HAP-Things architecture has the best end-to-end delay, packet loss, throughput, energy consumption, and handover.

Author: Omar Said and Amr Tolba



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