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Critical Care

, 19:224

First Online: 08 May 2015


A significant number of surgical patients are at risk of intra- or post-operative complications or both, which are associated with increased lengths of stay, costs, and mortality. Reducing these risks is important for the individual patient but also for health-care planners and managers. Insufficient tissue perfusion and cellular oxygenation due to hypovolemia, heart dysfunction or both is one of the leading causes of perioperative complications. Adequate perioperative management guided by effective and timely hemodynamic monitoring can help reduce the risk of complications and thus potentially improve outcomes. In this review, we describe the various available hemodynamic monitoring systems and how they can best be used to guide cardiovascular and fluid management in the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patients.

AbbreviationsCOCardiac output

CVCCentral venous catheter

CVPCentral venous pressure

DO2Oxygen delivery

EVLWExtravascular lung water

GEDVGlobal end-diastolic volume


ICGIndocyanine green

ICUIntensive care unit

LVLeft ventricular

OROperating room

PACPulmonary artery catheter

PACUPost-anesthesia care unit

PetCO2Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide

PLRPassive leg raising

PPVPulse pressure variation

PVIPleth variability index

RVRight ventricular

ScvO2Central venous oxygen saturation

SVStroke volume

SvO2Mixed venous oxygen saturation

SVVStroke volume variation

TEETransesophagel echocardiography

TTETransthoracic echocardiography

VO2Oxygen consumption

ZtVascular impedance

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Autor: Jean-Louis Vincent - Paolo Pelosi - Rupert Pearse - Didier Payen - Azriel Perel - Andreas Hoeft - Stefano Romagnoli - V Ma


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