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BMC Microbiology

, 12:249

Ecological and evolutionary microbiology


BackgroundDifferent systems contributing to copper homeostasis in bacteria have been described in recent years involving periplasmic and transport proteins that provide resistance via metal efflux to the extracellular media CopA-Cue, Cus, Cut, and Pco. The participation of these proteins in the assembly of membrane, periplasmic and secreted cuproproteins has also been postulated. The integration and interrelation of these systems and their apparent redundancies are less clear since they have been studied in alternative systems. Based on the idea that cellular copper is not free but rather it is transferred via protein-protein interactions, we hypothesized that systems would coevolve and be constituted by set numbers of essential components.

ResultsBy the use of a phylogenomic approach we identified the distribution of 14 proteins previously characterized as members of homeostasis systems in the genomes of 268 gamma proteobacteria. Only 3% of the genomes presented the complete systems and 5% of them, all intracellular parasites, lacked the 14 genes. Surprisingly, copper homeostatic pathways did not behave as evolutionary units with particular species assembling different combinations of basic functions. The most frequent functions, and probably because of its distribution the most vital, were copper extrusion from the cytoplasm to the periplasm performed by CopA and copper export from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space performed by CusC, which along with the remaining 12 proteins, assemble in nine different functional repertoires.

ConclusionsThese observations suggest complex evolutionary dynamics and still unexplored interactions to achieve copper homeostasis, challenging some of the molecular transport mechanism proposed for these systems.

KeywordsCopper homeostasisGamma-proteobacteriaEvolutionAbbreviationsBBHBidirectional best hit

MCOMulticopper oxidase.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2180-12-249 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: GeorginaHernndez-Montes - JosMArgello - BrendaValderrama

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/

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