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, Volume 114, Issue 1–3, pp 41–70

First Online: 23 October 2012Received: 04 June 2012Accepted: 24 September 2012DOI: 10.1007-s10533-012-9802-4

Cite this article as: Robertson, G.P., Bruulsema, T.W., Gehl, R.J. et al. Biogeochemistry 2013 114: 41. doi:10.1007-s10533-012-9802-4


Agriculture in the United States US cycles large quantities of nitrogen N to produce food, fuel, and fiber and is a major source of excess reactive nitrogen Nr in the environment. Nitrogen lost from cropping systems and animal operations moves to waterways, groundwater, and the atmosphere. Changes in climate and climate variability may further affect the ability of agricultural systems to conserve N. The N that escapes affects climate directly through the emissions of nitrous oxide N2O, and indirectly through the loss of nitrate NO3, nitrogen oxides NOx and ammonia to downstream and downwind ecosystems that then emit some of the N received as N2O and NOx. Emissions of NOx lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas that can also harm crops directly. There are many opportunities to mitigate the impact of agricultural N on climate and the impact of climate on agricultural N. Some are available today; many need further research; and all await effective incentives to become adopted. Research needs can be grouped into four major categories: 1 an improved understanding of agricultural N cycle responses to changing climate; 2 a systems-level understanding of important crop and animal systems sufficient to identify key interactions and feedbacks; 3 the further development and testing of quantitative models capable of predicting N-climate interactions with confidence across a wide variety of crop-soil-climate combinations; and 4 socioecological research to better understand the incentives necessary to achieve meaningful deployment of realistic solutions.

KeywordsNitrate Nitrous oxide Ozone Greenhouse gases Mitigation Methane Fertilizer  Download fulltext PDF



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