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Breast Cancer Research

, 16:202

First Online: 29 January 2014DOI: 10.1186-bcr3610

Cite this article as: Rosen, J.M. & Roarty, K. Breast Cancer Res 2014 16: 202. doi:10.1186-bcr3610

Abstract

Paracrine signaling mechanisms play a critical role in both normal mammary gland development and breast cancer. Dissection of these mechanisms using genetically engineered mouse models has provided significant insight into our understanding of the mechanisms that guide intratumoral heterogeneity. In the following perspective, we briefly review some of the emerging concepts in this field and emphasize why elucidation of these pathways will be important for future progress in devising new and improved combinatorial therapeutic approaches for breast and other solid cancers.

AbbreviationsCSCcancer stem cell

ERestrogen receptor

FGFRfibroblast growth factor receptor

ILinterleukin

JAG1jagged-1

MaSCmammary stem cell

MECmammary epithelial cell

PRprogesterone receptor

RANKLreceptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand

SmoSmoothened.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-bcr3610 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Jeffrey M Rosen - Kevin Roarty

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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