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World Journal of Urology

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 31–38

First Online: 12 February 2013Received: 15 November 2012Accepted: 24 January 2013DOI: 10.1007-s00345-013-1033-3

Cite this article as: Bedke, J., Gouttefangeas, C., Singh-Jasuja, H. et al. World J Urol 2014 32: 31. doi:10.1007-s00345-013-1033-3

Abstract

Non-specific immunotherapy has been for a long time a standard treatment option for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma but was redeemed by specific targeted molecular therapies, namely the VEGF and mTOR inhibitors. After moving treatment for mRCC to specific molecular agents with a well-defined mode of action, immunotherapy still needs this further development to increase its accuracy. Nowadays, an evolution from a rather non-specific cytokine treatment to sophisticated targeted approaches in specific immunotherapy led to a re-launch of immunotherapy in clinical studies. Recent steps in the development of immunotherapy strategies are discussed in this review with a special focus on peptide vaccination which aims at a tumor targeting by specific T lymphocytes. In addition, different combinatory strategies with immunomodulating agents like cyclophosphamide or sunitinib are outlined, and the effects of immune checkpoint modulators as anti-CTLA-4 or PD-1 antibodies are discussed.

KeywordsRenal cell carcinoma Tyrosine kinase inhibitor Immune therapy Vaccination IMA901  Download fulltext PDF



Author: Jens Bedke - Cécile Gouttefangeas - Harpreet Singh-Jasuja - Stefan Stevanović - Carl-Ludwig Behnes - Arnulf Stenzl

Source: https://link.springer.com/







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