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International Journal of Navigation and ObservationVolume 2012 2012, Article ID 353961, 14 pages

Research ArticleTime Department, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM, Pavillon de Breteuil, 92312 Sèvres Cedex, France

Received 13 March 2012; Accepted 5 June 2012

Academic Editor: Gonzalo Seco-Granados

Copyright © 2012 Z. Jiang and W. Lewandowski. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The spatial techniques currently used in accurate time transfer are based on GPS, TWSTFT, and GLONASS. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures BIPM is mandated for the generation of Coordinated Universal Time UTC which is published monthly in the BIPM Circular T. In 2009, the international Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency CCTF recommended the use of multitechniques in time transfer to ensure precision, accuracy, and robustness in UTC. To complement the existing GPS and TWSTFT time links, in November 2009 the first two GLONASS time links were introduced into the UTC worldwide time link network. By November 2011, 6 GLONASS time links are used in the UTC computation. In the frame of the application in the UTC computation, we establish the technical features of GLONASS time transfer: the short- and long-term stabilities, the calibration process, and in particular the impact of the multiple GLONASS frequency biases. We then outline various considerations for future developments, including the uses of P-codes and carrier-phase information.

Autor: Z. Jiang and W. Lewandowski



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