Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sourcesReport as inadecuate

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BMC Genomics

, 16:289

First Online: 12 April 2015Received: 27 October 2014Accepted: 25 March 2015DOI: 10.1186-s12864-015-1484-6

Cite this article as: Martinez-Moya, P., Niehaus, K., Alcaíno, J. et al. BMC Genomics 2015 16: 289. doi:10.1186-s12864-015-1484-6


BackgroundAstaxanthin is a potent antioxidant with increasing biotechnological interest. In Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, a natural source of this pigment, carotenogenesis is a complex process regulated through several mechanisms, including the carbon source. X. dendrorhous produces more astaxanthin when grown on a non-fermentable carbon source, while decreased astaxanthin production is observed in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In the present study, we used a comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis to characterize the yeast response when cultured in minimal medium supplemented with glucose fermentable or succinate non-fermentable.

ResultsA total of 329 proteins were identified from the proteomic profiles, and most of these proteins were associated with carotenogenesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and redox and stress responses. The metabolite profiles revealed 92 metabolites primarily associated with glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, amino acids, organic acids, sugars and phosphates. We determined the abundance of proteins and metabolites of the central pathways of yeast metabolism and examined the influence of these molecules on carotenogenesis.

Similar to previous proteomic-stress response studies, we observed modulation of abundance from several redox, stress response, carbohydrate and lipid enzymes. Additionally, the accumulation of trehalose, absence of key ROS response enzymes, an increased abundance of the metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle suggested an association between the accumulation of astaxanthin and oxidative stress in the yeast. Moreover, we observed the increased abundance of late carotenogenesis enzymes during astaxanthin accumulation under succinate growth conditions.

ConclusionsThe use of succinate as a carbon source in X. dendrorhous cultures increases the availability of acetyl-CoA for the astaxanthin production compared with glucose, likely reflecting the positive regulation of metabolic enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles. The high metabolite level generated in this pathway could increase the cellular respiration rate, producing reactive oxygen species, which induces carotenogenesis.

KeywordsProteomics Carotenogenesis Metabolomics Carbon source Astaxanthin ROS AbbreviationsX. dendrorhousXanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

MMMinimal medium

TCATricarboxylic acid cycle

PP pathwayPentose phosphate pathway

IPPIsopentenyl pyrophosphate

GGPPGeranyl geranyl pyrophosphate

GGPSGeranyl geranyl pyrophosphate synthase

RP-HPLCReverse phase- high pressure liquid chromatography

GAPDHGlyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

ADHAlcohol dehydrogenase

ROSReactive oxygen species

SODSuperoxide dismutase

HMGR3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase

MKMevalonate kinase

CPRCytochrome P450 reductase

FASFatty acid synthase

NADPHNicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12864-015-1484-6 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Pilar Martinez-Moya - Karsten Niehaus - Jennifer Alcaíno - Marcelo Baeza - Víctor Cifuentes


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