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BMC Genomics

, 16:288

First Online: 12 April 2015Received: 17 July 2014Accepted: 06 March 2015DOI: 10.1186-s12864-015-1440-5

Cite this article as: Coqueiro, D.S.O., de Souza, A.A., Takita, M.A. et al. BMC Genomics 2015 16: 288. doi:10.1186-s12864-015-1440-5


BackgroundResistance inducers have been used in annual crops as an alternative for disease control. Wood perennial fruit trees, such as those of the citrus species, are candidates for treatment with resistance inducers, such as salicylic acid SA and chitosan CHI. However, the involved mechanisms in resistance induced by elicitors in citrus are currently few known.

ResultsIn the present manuscript, we report information regarding the transcriptional changes observed in sweet orange in response to exogenous applications of SA and CHI using RNA-seq technology. More genes were induced by SA treatment than by CHI treatment. In total, 1,425 differentially expressed genes DEGs were identified following treatment with SA, including the important genes WRKY50, PR2, and PR9, which are known to participate in the salicylic acid signaling pathway, and genes involved in ethylene-Jasmonic acid biosynthesis ACS12, AP2 domain-containing transcription factor, and OPR3. In addition, SA treatment promoted the induction of a subset of genes involved in several metabolic processes, such as redox states and secondary metabolism, which are associated with biotic stress. For CHI treatment, there were 640 DEGs, many of them involved in secondary metabolism. For both SA and CHI treatments, the auxin pathway genes were repressed, but SA treatment promoted induction in the ethylene and jasmonate acid pathway genes, in addition to repressing the abscisic acid pathway genes. Chitosan treatment altered some hormone metabolism pathways. The DEGs were validated by quantitative Real-Time PCR qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with the RNA-seq data, with a high correlation between the two analyses.

ConclusionsWe expanded the available information regarding induced defense by elicitors in a species of Citrus that is susceptible to various diseases and identified the molecular mechanisms by which this defense might be mediated.

KeywordsCitrus Gene expression Metabolic pathway RNA-seq AbbreviationsSASalicylic acid


DEGsDifferentially expressed genes

qRT-PCRQuantitative Real-Time PCR

IMPIntegrated management of plant

SARSystemic acquired resistance


A1MVAlfalfa mosaic virus

JAJasmonic acid

MeJAMethyl jasmonate


LRRLeucine rich repeats

RLKReceptor-like kinase

PLCPhosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C

NONitric oxide

ROSReactive oxygen species

BTHBenzothiadiazole S-methylester


ABAAbscisic acid

GOGene Ontology

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12864-015-1440-5 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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