TNF-alpha promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis of gallbladder cancer through the ERK1-2-AP-1-VEGF-D pathwayReportar como inadecuado




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BMC Cancer

, 16:240

Cell and molecular biology

Abstract

BackgroundTumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-α, a key player in cancer-related inflammation, was recently demonstrated to be involved in the lymphatic metastasis of gallbladder cancer GBC. Vascular endothelial growth factor D VEGF-D is a key lymphangiogenic factor that is associated with lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in GBC. However, whether VEGF-D is involved in TNF-α-induced lymphatic metastasis of GBC remains undetermined.

MethodsThe expression of VEGF-D in patient specimens was detected by immunohistochemistry and the relationship between VEGF-D in the tissue and TNF-α in the bile of the matching patients was analyzed. The VEGF-D mRNA and protein levels after treatment with exogenous TNF-α in NOZ, GBC-SD and SGC-996 cell lines were measured by real-time PCR and ELISA. The promoter activity and transcriptional regulation of VEGF-D were analyzed with the relative luciferase reporter assay, mutant constructs, electrophoretic mobility shift assay EMSA, chromatin immunoprecipitation ChIP assay, RNA interference and Western blotting. Inhibitors of JNK, p38 MAPK and ERK1-2 were used to explore the upstream signaling effector of AP-1. We used lentiviral vector expressing a VEGF-D shRNA construct to knockdown VEGF-D gene in NOZ and GBC-SD cells. The role of the TNF-α-VEGF-D axis in the tube formation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells HDLECs was determined using a three-dimensional coculture system. The role of the TNF-α - VEGF-D axis in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis was studied via animal experiment.

ResultsTNF-α levels in the bile of GBC patients were positively correlated with VEGF-D expression in the clinical specimens. TNF-α can upregulate the protein expression and promoter activity of VEGF-D through the ERK1-2 - AP-1 pathway. Moreover, TNF-α can promote tube formation of HDLECs, lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of GBC by upregulation of VEGF-D in vitro and in vivo.

ConclusionTaken together, our data suggest that TNF-α can promote lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis of GBC through the ERK1-2-AP-1-VEGF-D pathway.

KeywordGallbladder cancer TNF-α VEGF-D Lymphatic metastasis AbbreviationsTNF-αTumor necrosis factor-alpha

VEGF-DVascular endothelial growth factor D

GBCGallbladder cancer

HDLECsHuman dermal lymphatic endothelial cells

LVDLymphatic vessel density

LNMLymph node metastases

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Autor: HaiJie Hong - Lei Jiang - YanFei Lin - CaiLong He - GuangWei Zhu - Qiang Du - XiaoQian Wang - FeiFei She - YanLing Chen

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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