The isolation and characterization of two Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteriophages capable of cross-taxonomic order infectivityReport as inadecuate

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BMC Genomics

, 16:664

Prokaryote microbial genomics


BackgroundA rapid worldwide increase in the number of human infections caused by the extremely antibiotic resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is prompting alarm. One potential treatment solution to the current antibiotic resistance dilemma is -phage therapy-, the clinical application of bacteriophages to selectively kill bacteria.

ResultsTowards that end, phages DLP1 and DLP2 vB SmaS-DLP 1 and vB SmaS-DLP 2, respectively were isolated against S. maltophilia strain D1585. Host range analysis for each phage was conducted using 27 clinical S. maltophilia isolates and 11 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Both phages exhibit unusually broad host ranges capable of infecting bacteria across taxonomic orders. Transmission electron microscopy of the phage DLP1 and DLP2 morphology reveals that they belong to the Siphoviridae family of bacteriophages. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and complete genome sequencing and analysis indicates that phages DLP1 and DLP2 are closely related but different phages, sharing 96.7 % identity over 97.2 % of their genomes. These two phages are also related to P. aeruginosa phages vB Pae-Kakheti 25 PA25, PA73, and vB PaeS SCH Ab26 Ab26 and more distantly related to Burkholderia cepacia complex phage KL1, which together make up a taxonomic sub-family. Phages DLP1 and DLP2 exhibited significant differences in host ranges and growth kinetics.

ConclusionsThe isolation and characterization of phages able to infect two completely different species of bacteria is an exciting discovery, as phages typically can only infect related bacterial species, and rarely infect bacteria across taxonomic families, let alone across taxonomic orders.

KeywordsStenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteriophage Phage DNA Genomics Phage genome Delayed lysis Broad-host-range AbbreviationsATPAdenosine triphosphate

BLASTBasic local alignment search tool

bpBase pair

dCMPDeoxycytidine monophosphate


DNADeoxyribonucleic acid

EDTAEthylenediaminetetraacetic acid

FDAUnited States Food and Drug Administration

gGravitational force or grams

gpGene product











ORFOpen reading frame

PCRPolymerase chain reaction

RNARibonucleic acid

RPMRounds per minute


SMSuspension media

TAETris base, acetic acid, EDTA



vsrVery short patch repair

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12864-015-1848-y contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Danielle L. Peters - Karlene H. Lynch - Paul Stothard - Jonathan J. Dennis


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