The mitochondrial genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pediculus schaeffi: insights into the process of mitochondrial genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of great apesReportar como inadecuado




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BMC Genomics

, 16:661

Comparative and evolutionary genomics

Abstract

BackgroundBlood-sucking lice in the genera Pediculus and Pthirus are obligate ectoparasites of great apes. Unlike most bilateral animals, which have 37 mitochondrial mt genes on a single circular chromosome, the sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mt genomes. The head louse, Pediculus capitis, and the body louse, Pe. humanus, have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, has its 34 mt genes known on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the sucking lice of great apes, we sequenced the mt genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pe. schaeffi, and compared it with the three human lice.

ResultsWe identified all of the 37 mt genes typical of bilateral animals in the chimpanzee louse; these genes are on 18 types of minichromosomes. Seventeen of the 18 minichromosomes of the chimpanzee louse have the same gene content and gene arrangement as their counterparts in the human head louse and the human body louse. However, five genes, cob, trnS1, trnN, trnE and trnM, which are on three minichromosomes in the human head louse and the human body louse, are together on one minichromosome in the chimpanzee louse.

ConclusionsUsing the human pubic louse, Pt. pubis, as an outgroup for comparison, we infer that a single minichromosome has fragmented into three in the lineage leading to the human head louse and the human body louse since this lineage diverged from the chimpanzee louse ~6 million years ago. Our results provide insights into the process of mt genome fragmentation in the sucking lice in a relatively fine evolutionary scale.

KeywordsChimpanzee louse Pediculus schaeffi Mitochondrial genome Minichromosomes AbbreviationsAGRFAustralian genome research facilities

atp6 and atp8Genes for ATP synthase subunits 6 and 8

bpBase pair

cobGene for cytochrome b

cox1, cox2 and cox3Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1, 2 and 3

DNADeoxyribonucleic acid

kbKilo base pair

μlMicroliter

μMMicromolar

minMinute

MRCAMost recent common ancestor

mtMitochondrial

MYAMillion years ago

nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad4L, nad5 and nad6Mitochondrial genes for NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1–6 and 4 L

ORFOpen reading frame

PCRPolymerase chain reaction

RNARibonucleic acid

rRNARibosomal RNA

rrnS and rrnLGenes for small and large subunits of ribosomal RNA

secSecond

TThymine

tRNATransfer RNA

tRNATransfer RNA

trnA or AtRNA gene for alanine

trnC or CtRNA gene for cysteine

trnD or DtRNA gene for aspartic acid

trnE or EtRNA gene for glutamic acid

trnF or FtRNA gene for phenylalanine

trnG or GtRNA gene for glycine

trnH or HtRNA gene for histidine

trnI or ItRNA gene for isoleucine

trnK or KtRNA gene for lysine

trnL1 or L1tRNA gene for leucine anticodon NAG

trnL2 or L2tRNA gene for leucine anticodon YAA

trnM or MtRNA gene for methionine

trnN or NtRNA gene for asparagine

trnP or PtRNA gene for proline

trnQ or QtRNA gene for glutamine

trnR or RtRNA gene for arginine

trnS1 or S1tRNA gene for serine anticodon NCU

trnS2 or S2tRNA gene for serine anticodon NGA

trnT or TtRNA gene for threonine

trnV or VtRNA gene for valine

trnW or WtRNA gene for tryptophan

trnY or YtRNA gene for tyrosine

AAdenine

GGuanine

CCytosine

TThymine

UUracil

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12864-015-1843-3 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Kate E. Herd - Stephen C. Barker - Renfu Shao

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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