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European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

, Volume 43, Issue 12, pp 2244–2254

First Online: 28 July 2016Received: 08 April 2016Accepted: 11 July 2016DOI: 10.1007-s00259-016-3464-8

Cite this article as: Niccolini, F. & Politis, M. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2016 43: 2244. doi:10.1007-s00259-016-3464-8

Abstract

PurposeTo systematically review the previous studies and current status of positron emission tomography PET molecular imaging research in atypical parkinsonism.

MethodsMEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus electronic databases were searched for articles published until 29th March 2016 and included brain PET studies in progressive supranuclear palsy PSP, multiple system atrophy MSA, and corticobasal syndrome CBS. Only articles published in English and in peer-reviewed journals were included in this review. Case-reports, reviews, and non-human studies were excluded.

ResultsSeventy-seven PET studies investigating the dopaminergic system, glucose metabolism, microglial activation, hyperphosphorilated tau, opioid receptors, the cholinergic system, and GABAA receptors in PSP, MSA, and CBS patients were included in this review. Disease-specific patterns of reduced glucose metabolism have shown higher accuracy than dopaminergic imaging techniques to distinguish between parkinsonian syndromes. Microglial activation has been found in all forms of atypical parkinsonism and reflects the known distribution of neuropathologic changes in these disorders. Opioid receptors are decreased in the striatum of PSP and MSA patients. Subcortical cholinergic dysfunction was more severe in MSA and PSP than Parkinson’s disease patients although no significant changes in cortical cholinergic receptors were seen in PSP with cognitive impairment. GABAA receptors were decreased in metabolically affected cortical and subcortical regions in PSP patients.

ConclusionsPET molecular imaging has provided valuable insight for understanding the mechanisms underlying atypical parkinsonism. Changes at a molecular level occur early in the course of these neurodegenerative diseases and PET imaging provides the means to aid differential diagnosis, monitor disease progression, identify of novel targets for pharmacotherapy, and monitor response to new treatments.

KeywordsAtypical parkinsonism Corticobasal syndrome Multiple system atrophy Progressive supranuclear palsy Positron emission tomography  Download fulltext PDF



Autor: Flavia Niccolini - Marios Politis

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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