Parent-of-origin effects on genome-wide DNA methylation in the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis may be confounded by allele-specific methylationReportar como inadecuado




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BMC Genomics

, 17:226

Multicellular invertebrate genomics

Abstract

BackgroundIntersexual genomic conflict sometimes leads to unequal expression of paternal and maternal alleles in offspring, resulting in parent-of-origin effects. In honey bees reciprocal crosses can show strong parent-of-origin effects, supporting theoretical predictions that genomic imprinting occurs in this species. Mechanisms behind imprinting in honey bees are unclear but differential DNA methylation in eggs and sperm suggests that DNA methylation could be involved. Nonetheless, because DNA methylation is multifunctional, it is difficult to separate imprinting from other roles of methylation. Here we use a novel approach to investigate parent-of-origin DNA methylation in honey bees. In the subspecies Apis mellifera capensis, reproduction of females occurs either sexually by fertilization of eggs with sperm, or via thelytokous parthenogenesis, producing female embryos derived from two maternal genomes.

ResultsWe compared genome-wide methylation patterns of sexually-produced, diploid embryos laid by a queen, with parthenogenetically-produced diploid embryos laid by her daughters. Thelytokous embryos inheriting two maternal genomes had fewer hypermethylated genes compared to fertilized embryos, supporting the prediction that fertilized embryos have increased methylation due to inheritance of a paternal genome. However, bisulfite PCR and sequencing of a differentially methylated gene, Stan GB18207 showed strong allele-specific methylation that was maintained in both fertilized and thelytokous embryos. For this gene, methylation was associated with haplotype, not parent of origin.

ConclusionsThe results of our study are consistent with predictions from the kin theory of genomic imprinting. However, our demonstration of allele-specific methylation based on sequence shows that genome-wide differential methylation studies can potentially confound imprinting and allele-specific methylation. It further suggests that methylation patterns are heritable or that specific sequence motifs are targets for methylation in some genes.

KeywordsApis mellifera capensis Imprinting Parent-of-origin effects Allele-specific methylation Thelytokous parthenogenesis AbbreviationsCapensisApis mellifera capensis

DMGDifferentially methylated gene

SNPSingle nucleotide polymorphism

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12864-016-2506-8 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Emily J. Remnant - Alyson Ashe - Paul E. Young - Gabriele Buchmann - Madeleine Beekman - Michael H. Allsopp - Catherine 

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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