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BMC Genomics

, 17:457

Prokaryote microbial genomics


BackgroundVery few closed genomes of the cyanobacteria that commonly produce toxic blooms in lakes and reservoirs are available, limiting our understanding of the properties of these organisms. A new anatoxin-a-producing member of the Nostocaceae, Anabaena sp. WA102, was isolated from a freshwater lake in Washington State, USA, in 2013 and maintained in non-axenic culture.

ResultsThe Anabaena sp. WA102 5.7 Mbp genome assembly has been closed with long-read, single-molecule sequencing and separately a draft genome assembly has been produced with short-read sequencing technology. The closed and draft genome assemblies are compared, showing a correlation between long repeats in the genome and the many gaps in the short-read assembly. Anabaena sp. WA102 encodes anatoxin-a biosynthetic genes, as does its close relative Anabaena sp. AL93 also introduced in this study. These strains are distinguished by differences in the genes for light-harvesting phycobilins, with Anabaena sp. AL93 possessing a phycoerythrocyanin operon. Biologically relevant structural variants in the Anabaena sp. WA102 genome were detected only by long-read sequencing: a tandem triplication of the anaBCD promoter region in the anatoxin-a synthase gene cluster not triplicated in Anabaena sp. AL93 and a 5-kbp deletion variant present in two-thirds of the population. The genome has a large number of mobile elements 160. Strikingly, there was no synteny with the genome of its nearest fully assembled relative, Anabaena sp. 90.

ConclusionStructural and functional genome analyses indicate that Anabaena sp. WA102 has a flexible genome. Genome closure, which can be readily achieved with long-read sequencing, reveals large scale e.g., gene order and local structural features that should be considered in understanding genome evolution and function.

KeywordsAnabaena Anatoxin-a Synteny Cyanobacteria Mobilome Long-read sequencing PacBio Illumina Tandem repeat Structural variation Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12864-016-2738-7 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Nathan M. Brown - Ryan S. Mueller - Jonathan W. Shepardson - Zachary C. Landry - Jeffrey T. Morré - Claudia S. Maier


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