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Abstract: Maximizing robustness and minimizing cost are common objectives in the designof infrastructure networks. However, most infrastructure networks evolve andoperate in a highly decentralized fashion, which may significantly impact theallocation of resources across the system. Here, we investigate this questionby focusing on the relation between capacity and load in different types ofreal-world communication and transportation networks. We find strong empiricalevidence that the actual capacity of the network elements tends to be similarto the maximum available capacity, if the cost is not strongly constraining. Asmore weight is given to the cost, however, the capacity approaches the loadnonlinearly. In particular, all systems analyzed show larger unoccupiedportions of the capacities on network elements subjected to smaller loads,which is in sharp contrast with the assumptions involved in linear modelsproposed in previous theoretical studies. We describe the observed behavior ofthe capacity-load relation as a function of the relative importance of the costby using a model that optimizes capacities to cope with network trafficfluctuations. These results suggest that infrastructure systems have evolvedunder pressure to minimize local failures, but not necessarily global failuresthat can be caused by the spread of local damage through cascading processes.



Autor: Dong-Hee Kim, Adilson E. Motter

Fuente: https://arxiv.org/







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