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BMC Public Health

, 13:607

Infectious Disease epidemiology


BackgroundThe increasing frequency and intensity of dengue outbreaks in endemic and non-endemic countries requires a rational, evidence based response. To this end, we aimed to collate the experiences of a number of affected countries, identify strengths and limitations in dengue surveillance, outbreak preparedness, detection and response and contribute towards the development of a model contingency plan adaptable to country needs.

MethodsThe study was undertaken in five Latin American Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru and five in Asian countries Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Vietnam. A mixed-methods approach was used which included document analysis, key informant interviews, focus-group discussions, secondary data analysis and consensus building by an international dengue expert meeting organised by the World Health Organization, Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases WHO-TDR.

ResultsCountry information on dengue is based on compulsory notification and reporting -passive surveillance-, with laboratory confirmation in all participating Latin American countries and some Asian countries or by using a clinical syndromic definition. Seven countries additionally had sentinel sites with active dengue reporting, some also had virological surveillance. Six had agreed a formal definition of a dengue outbreak separate to seasonal variation in case numbers. Countries collected data on a range of warning signs that may identify outbreaks early, but none had developed a systematic approach to identifying and responding to the early stages of an outbreak. Outbreak response plans varied in quality, particularly regarding the early response. The surge capacity of hospitals with recent dengue outbreaks varied; those that could mobilise additional staff, beds, laboratory support and resources coped best in comparison to those improvising a coping strategy during the outbreak. Hospital outbreak management plans were present in 9-22 participating hospitals in Latin-America and 8-20 participating hospitals in Asia.

ConclusionsConsiderable variation between countries was observed with regard to surveillance, outbreak detection, and response. Through discussion at the expert meeting, suggestions were made for the development of a more standardised approach in the form of a model contingency plan, with agreed outbreak definitions and country-specific risk assessment schemes to initiate early response activities according to the outbreak phase. This would also allow greater cross-country sharing of ideas.

KeywordsDengue outbreaks Dengue epidemics Outbreak response Outbreak detection Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2458-13-607 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Shiraz Badurdeen - David Benitez Valladares - Jeremy Farrar - Ernesto Gozzer - Axel Kroeger - Novia Kuswara - Silvia Runge


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