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BMC Public Health

, 14:31

Biostatistics and methods


BackgroundMore than 75% of the total of Ethiopia is malarious. Therefore, malaria is a leading public health problem in Ethiopia. This study aims to identify socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors contributing to the spread of malaria and is based on the results of a malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test survey.

MethodsThe data used in this study originates from the baseline malaria indicator survey, conducted in the Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People SNNP regions of Ethiopia from December 2006 to January 2007. The study applies the method of generalized additive mixed model GAMM to analyse data. The response variable is the presence or absence of malaria, using the malaria Rapid Diagnosis Test RDT.

ResultsThe results provide an improved insight into the distribution of malaria in relation to the age of affected people, the altitude, the total number of rooms, the total number of mosquito nets, family size, and the number of months that their rooms have been sprayed. The results confirm that positive malaria RDT test results are high for children under 15 years and for older persons. Gender, source of drinking water, time needed to fetch water, toilet facilities, main materials used for the construction of walls, floors and roofs, and use of mosquito nets were all found to have a significant impact on the results of the malaria rapid diagnosis test.

ConclusionThe result of the analysis identifies poor socio-economic conditions as a major contributing factor or determinant for the spread of malaria. With the correct use of mosquito nets, indoor residual spraying with insecticide and other preventative measures, the incidence of malaria could be decreased. In addition, improving housing conditions is a means to reduce the risk of malaria. Other measures such as creating awareness of the use of mosquito nets, indoor residual spraying with insecticide, and malaria transmission, can lead to a further reduction in the number of malaria cases.

KeywordsAM GAMM Rapid diagnostic test Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2458-14-31 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Dawit G Ayele - Temesgen T Zewotir - Henry G Mwambi


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