Health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Global Burden of Disease 2010 StudyReport as inadecuate

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Population Health Metrics

, 10:16

First Online: 22 August 2012Received: 06 October 2011Accepted: 10 August 2012DOI: 10.1186-1478-7954-10-16

Cite this article as: Ferrari, A.J., Saha, S., McGrath, J.J. et al. Popul Health Metrics 2012 10: 16. doi:10.1186-1478-7954-10-16


A comprehensive revision of the Global Burden of Disease GBD study is expected to be completed in 2012. This study utilizes a broad range of improved methods for assessing burden, including closer attention to empirically derived estimates of disability. The aim of this paper is to describe how GBD health states were derived for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These will be used in deriving health state-specific disability estimates. A literature review was first conducted to settle on a parsimonious set of health states for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A second review was conducted to investigate the proportion of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder cases experiencing these health states. These were pooled using a quality-effects model to estimate the overall proportion of cases in each state. The two schizophrenia health states were acute predominantly positive symptoms and residual predominantly negative symptoms. The three bipolar disorder health states were depressive, manic, and residual. Based on estimates from six studies, 63% 38%-82% of schizophrenia cases were in an acute state and 37% 18%-62% were in a residual state. Another six studies were identified from which 23% 10%-39% of bipolar disorder cases were in a manic state, 27% 11%-47% were in a depressive state, and 50% 30%-70% were in a residual state. This literature review revealed salient gaps in the literature that need to be addressed in future research. The pooled estimates are indicative only and more data are required to generate more definitive estimates. That said, rather than deriving burden estimates that fail to capture the changes in disability within schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, the derived proportions and their wide uncertainty intervals will be used in deriving disability estimates.

KeywordsGlobal Burden of Disease Health States Schizophrenia Bipolar Disorder Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1478-7954-10-16 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Alize J Ferrari - Sukanta Saha - John J McGrath - Rosana Norman - Amanda J Baxter - Theo Vos - Harvey A Whiteford


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