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BMC Public Health

, 14:510

Health behavior, health promotion and society

Abstract

BackgroundBy 2050, it has been estimated that approximately one-fifth of the population will be made up of older adults aged ≥60 years. Old age often comes with cognitive decline and dementia. Physical activity may prevent cognitive decline and dementia.

MethodsWe reviewed and synthesised prospective studies into physical activity and cognitive decline, and physical activity and dementia, published until January 2014. Forty-seven cohorts, derived from two previous systematic reviews and an updated database search, were used in the meta-analyses. Included participants were aged ≥40 years, in good health and-or randomly selected from the community. Studies were assessed for methodological quality.

ResultsTwenty-one cohorts on physical activity and cognitive decline and twenty-six cohorts on physical activity and dementia were included. Meta-analysis, using the quality-effects model, suggests that participants with higher levels of physical activity, when compared to those with lower levels, are at reduced risk of cognitive decline, RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76, and dementia, RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.97. Sensitivity analyses revealed a more conservative estimate of the impact of physical activity on cognitive decline and dementia for high quality studies, studies reporting effect sizes as ORs, greater number of adjustments ≥10, and longer follow-up time ≥10 years. When one heavily weighted study was excluded, physical activity was associated with an 18% reduction in the risk of dementia RR 0.82; 0.73-0.91.

ConclusionsLongitudinal observational studies show an association between higher levels of physical activity and a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. A case can be made for a causal interpretation. Future research should use objective measures of physical activity, adjust for the full range of confounders and have adequate follow-up length. Ideally, randomised controlled trials will be conducted. Regardless of any effect on cognition, physical activity should be encouraged, as it has been shown to be beneficial on numerous levels.

KeywordsPhysical activity Exercise Cognitive decline Dementia Cognitive impairment Alzheimer’s disease Cognition AbbreviationsADAlzheimer’s Disease

CIConfidence Interval

CINDCognitive Impairment No Dementia

DSMDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

HRHazard Ratio

ICDInternational Classification of Disease

MCIMild Cognitive Impairment

MMSEMini-Mental State Exam

OROdds Ratio

RCTRandomised Control Trial

RRRelative Risk

SDStandard Deviation

VaDVascular Dementia.

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1471-2458-14-510 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Sarah J Blondell - Rachel Hammersley-Mather - J Lennert Veerman

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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