The effect of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression on neurite outgrowth from retinal explants in a permissive environmentReportar como inadecuado

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BMC Research Notes

, 5:693

First Online: 22 December 2012Received: 25 July 2012Accepted: 18 December 2012DOI: 10.1186-1756-0500-5-693

Cite this article as: Toops, K.A., Hagemann, T.L., Messing, A. et al. BMC Res Notes 2012 5: 693. doi:10.1186-1756-0500-5-693


BackgroundIncreased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein GFAP within macroglia is commonly seen as a hallmark of glial activation after damage within the central nervous system, including the retina. The increased expression of GFAP in glia is also considered part of the pathologically inhibitory environment for regeneration of axons from damaged neurons. Recent studies have raised the possibility that reactive gliosis and increased GFAP cannot automatically be assumed to be negative events for the surrounding neurons and that the context of the reactive gliosis is critical to whether neurons benefit or suffer. We utilized transgenic mice expressing a range of Gfap to titrate the amount of GFAP in retinal explants to investigate the relationship between GFAP concentration and the regenerative potential of retinal ganglion cells.

FindingsExplants from Gfap and Gfap mice did not have increased neurite outgrowth compared with Gfap or Gfap over-expressing mice as would be expected if GFAP was detrimental to axon regeneration. In fact, Gfap over-expressing explants had the most neurite outgrowth when treated with a neurite stimulatory media. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that neurites formed bundles, which were surrounded by larger cellular processes that were GFAP positive indicating a close association between growing axons and glial cells in this regeneration paradigm.

ConclusionsWe postulate that glial cells with increased Gfap expression support the elongation of new neurites from retinal ganglion cells possibly by providing a scaffold for outgrowth.

KeywordsGlial fibrillary acidic protein Axon regeneration Retinal ganglion cell Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1756-0500-5-693 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Kimberly A Toops - Tracy L Hagemann - Albee Messing - Robert W Nickells


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