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Journal of Medical Case Reports

, 6:101

First Online: 05 April 2012Received: 06 December 2011Accepted: 05 April 2012DOI: 10.1186-1752-1947-6-101

Cite this article as: Rais, G., Raissouni, S., Mouzount, H. et al. J Med Case Reports 2012 6: 101. doi:10.1186-1752-1947-6-101


IntroductionLeiomyosarcomas are neoplasms of smooth muscles that most commonly arise from the uterus, gastrointestinal tract, or soft tissue. Primary pleural leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only nine cases have been published to date. Because of the rarity of pleural leiomyosarcoma and its similarity clinical and histological to other pleural neoplasms, particularly sarcomatous mesothelioma, diagnosis is often difficult.

Case presentationA 58-year-old North African man was admitted with complaints of dyspnea and chest pain to our hospital. Chest computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion and pleural thickening. A transthoracic needle biopsy yielded a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma, and tumor cells were strongly and uniformly positive for vimentin, a smooth muscle actin at immunohistochemical analysis. A general examination did not show any metastatic lesions in other areas. One month after diagnosis, the tumor grew rapidly, with pulmonary invasion, and therefore he was treated only by palliative care. He died from respiratory failure one month later. Because no organ of origin of the leiomyosarcoma, other than the pleura, was detected, this case was diagnosed as a primary pleural leiomyosarcoma.

ConclusionsAlthough leiomyosarcoma originating from the pleura is rare, this entity is increasingly described. The purpose of presenting this case report is to raise awareness among clinicians to consider this clinical entity as a differential diagnosis when a pleural mass is identified.

AbbreviationsCTcomputed tomography


Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1752-1947-6-101 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Ghizlane Rais - Soundouss Raissouni - Houda Mouzount - Meryem Aitelhaj - Siham Khoyaali - Fadoi El Omrani - Hind Mrabti - A


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