Characteristics of unit-level patient safety culture in hospitals in Japan: a cross-sectional studyReport as inadecuate

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BMC Health Services Research

, 14:508

Quality, performance, safety and outcomes


BackgroundPatient safety culture PSC has an important role in determining safety and quality in healthcare. Currently, little is known about the status of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. To develop appropriate strategies, characteristics of unit-level PSC should be investigated. Work units may be classified according to the characteristics of PSC, and common problems and appropriate strategies may be identified for each work unit category. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan.

MethodsIn 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted at 18 hospitals in Japan. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire, developed by the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was distributed to all healthcare workers n =12,076. Percent positive scores for 12 PSC sub-dimensions were calculated for each unit, and cluster analysis was used to categorise the units according to the percent positive scores. A generalised linear mixed model GLMM was used to analyse the results of the cluster analysis, and odds ratios ORs for categorisation as high-PSC units were calculated for each unit type.

ResultsA total of 9,124 respondents 75.6% completed the questionnaire, and valid data from 8,700 respondents 72.0% were analysed. There were 440 units in the 18 hospitals. According to the percent positive scores for the 12 sub-dimensions, the 440 units were classified into 2 clusters: high-PSC units n =184 and low-PSC units n =256. Percent positive scores for all PSC sub-dimensions for high-PSC units were significantly higher than those for low-PSC units. The GLMM revealed that the combined unit type of `Obstetrics and gynaecology ward, perinatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit’ was significantly more likely to be categorised as high-PSC units OR =9.7, and `Long-term care ward’ OR =0.2, `Rehabilitation unit’ OR =0.2 and `Administration unit’ OR =0.3 were significantly less likely to be categorised as high-PSC units.

ConclusionsOur study findings demonstrate that PSC varies considerably among different unit types in hospitals in Japan. Factors contributing to low PSC should be identified and possible measures for improving PSC should be developed and initiated.

KeywordsPatient safety Organisational culture Safety management Attitude of health personnel Patient safety culture AbbreviationsPSCPatient safety culture

GLMMGeneralised linear mixed model

ORsOdds ratios

HSOPSCHospital Survey of Patient Safety Culture

AHRQAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality

NICUNeonatal intensive care units

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s12913-014-0508-2 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Shigeru Fujita - Kanako Seto - Takefumi Kitazawa - Kunichika Matsumoto - Tomonori Hasegawa


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