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Implementation Science

, 9:157

First Online: 23 October 2014Received: 09 June 2014Accepted: 06 October 2014DOI: 10.1186-s13012-014-0157-1

Cite this article as: Ehrhart, M.G., Aarons, G.A. & Farahnak, L.R. Implementation Sci 2014 9: 157. doi:10.1186-s13012-014-0157-1


BackgroundAlthough the importance of the organizational environment for implementing evidence-based practices EBP has been widely recognized, there are limited options for measuring implementation climate in public sector health settings. The goal of this research was to develop and test a measure of EBP implementation climate that would both capture a broad range of issues important for effective EBP implementation and be of practical use to researchers and managers seeking to understand and improve the implementation of EBPs.

MethodsParticipants were 630 clinicians working in 128 work groups in 32 US-based mental health agencies. Items to measure climate for EBP implementation were developed based on past literature on implementation climate and other strategic climates and in consultation with experts on the implementation of EBPs in mental health settings. The sample was randomly split at the work group level of analysis; half of the sample was used for exploratory factor analysis EFA, and the other half was used for confirmatory factor analysis CFA. The entire sample was utilized for additional analyses assessing the reliability, support for level of aggregation, and construct-based evidence of validity.

ResultsThe EFA resulted in a final factor structure of six dimensions for the Implementation Climate Scale ICS: 1 focus on EBP, 2 educational support for EBP, 3 recognition for EBP, 4 rewards for EBP, 5 selection for EBP, and 6 selection for openness. This structure was supported in the other half of the sample using CFA. Additional analyses supported the reliability and construct-based evidence of validity for the ICS, as well as the aggregation of the measure to the work group level.

ConclusionsThe ICS is a very brief 18 item and pragmatic measure of a strategic climate for EBP implementation. It captures six dimensions of the organizational context that indicate to employees the extent to which their organization prioritizes and values the successful implementation of EBPs. The ICS can be used by researchers to better understand the role of the organizational context on implementation outcomes and by organizations to evaluate their current climate as they consider how to improve the likelihood of implementation success.

KeywordsImplementation climate Organizational climate Strategic climate Evidence-based practice Organizational context Measurement Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-s13012-014-0157-1 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Mark G Ehrhart - Gregory A Aarons - Lauren R Farahnak


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