Clot Formation in the Sipunculid Worm Themiste petricola: A Haemostatic and Immune Cellular ResponseReport as inadecuate

Clot Formation in the Sipunculid Worm Themiste petricola: A Haemostatic and Immune Cellular Response - Download this document for free, or read online. Document in PDF available to download.

International Journal of Cell BiologyVolume 2012 2012, Article ID 280675, 7 pages

Review ArticleLaboratorio de Inmunotoxicologia LaITO, IDEHU, CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas “José de San Martín-, Universidad de Buenos Aires UBA, Avenida Córdoba 2351 Piso 2, Buenos Aires CP 1120, Argentina

Received 23 November 2011; Revised 23 January 2012; Accepted 1 February 2012

Academic Editor: Afshin Samali

Copyright © 2012 Tomás Lombardo and Guillermo A. Blanco. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Clot formation in the sipunculid Themiste petricola, a coelomate nonsegmented marine worm without a circulatory system, is a cellular response that creates a haemostatic mass upon activation with sea water. The mass with sealing properties is brought about by homotypic aggregation of granular leukocytes present in the coelomic fluid that undergo a rapid process of fusion and cell death forming a homogenous clot or mass. The clot structure appears to be stabilized by abundant F-actin that creates a fibrous scaffold retaining cell-derived components. Since preservation of fluid within the coelom is vital for the worm, clotting contributes to rapidly seal the body wall and entrap pathogens upon injury, creating a matrix where wound healing can take place in a second stage. During formation of the clot, microbes or small particles are entrapped. Phagocytosis of self and non-self particles shed from the clot occurs at the clot neighbourhood, demonstrating that clotting is the initial phase of a well-orchestrated dual haemostatic and immune cellular response.

Author: Tomás Lombardo and Guillermo A. Blanco



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