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BMC Health Services Research

, 15:310

First Online: 05 August 2015Received: 09 July 2014Accepted: 14 July 2015DOI: 10.1186-s12913-015-0953-6

Cite this article as: Dark, F., Whiteford, H., Ashkanasy, N.M. et al. BMC Health Serv Res 2015 15: 310. doi:10.1186-s12913-015-0953-6


BackgroundTreatment outcomes for people diagnosed with psychosis remain suboptimal due in part to the limited systematic application of evidence based practice Adm Policy Ment Health, 36: 1-7, 2009 1. The Implementation science literature identifies a number of factors organisationally that need to be considered when planning to introduce a particular EBP. Profiling these organisational characteristics at baseline, prior to commencement of service reform can determine the focus of a subsequent implementation plan. This study examined the organisational baseline factors existing in two services promoting the routine use of cognitive interventions for psychosis. One of the services studied has since undertaken organisational structural reform to facilitate the greater uptake of Evidence Based Practice EBP. The results of this study were used to design an implementation strategy to make cognitive therapies a part of routine psychosis care.

MethodsOne hundred-and-six mental health staff from two metropolitan mental health services in Australia was surveyed to ascertain their attitudes, competencies and interest in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis CBTp and Cognitive Remediation Therapy CRT. In addition perceptions of organisational values were profiled using the Organisational Culture Profile OCP. Fifty five participants were excluded because they completed less than 50 % of the survey. The final sample consisted of 51 participants.

Results48.1 % of surveys were completed. Over 50 % of staff were interested in CBTp and CRT approaches to psychosis. Staff were aware of existing CBTp and CRT programs but these were not uniformly available throughout the services. Fourteen percent of staff identified as CBT therapist and 35 % were trained CRT facilitators. Only 12 % of staff were receiving therapy specific supervision. The Organisational Culture Profile OCP at baseline revealed highest scores amongst leadership, planning, and humanistic workplace domains, with communication receiving the lowest rating indicative of organisational weakness.

ConclusionProfiling the factors associated with successful implementation of service reform informed the implementation planning and the efficient deployment of resources in a mental health service introducing cognitive therapies for psychosis into routine clinical care. The majority of staff had positive attitudes to the evidence based cognitive therapies allowing a focus on training and supervision and the development of supporting organisational elements.

KeywordsMental health Mental health services Cognitive behavioural therapy Cognitive remediation Evidenced based mental health care Psychosis AbbreviationsACUAcademic Clinical Unit

CBTCognitive Behavioural Therapy

CBTpCognitive Behaviour therapy for psychosis

CRTCognitive Remediation Therapy

EBPEvidence Based Practice

HHSHealth and Hospital Service

NEARNeuropsychological Educational Approach to Cognitive Remediation

OCPOrganisational Culture Profile

RBWHRoyal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital

SCITSocial Cognitive Interaction Training

SDStandard Deviation

TPCHThe Prince Charles Hospital

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Author: Frances Dark - Harvey Whiteford - Neal M. Ashkanasy - Carol Harvey - David Crompton - Ellie Newman


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