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Environmental Health

, 7:26

First Online: 03 June 2008Received: 14 February 2008Accepted: 03 June 2008DOI: 10.1186-1476-069X-7-26

Cite this article as: De Coster, S., Koppen, G., Bracke, M. et al. Environ Health 2008 7: 26. doi:10.1186-1476-069X-7-26

Abstract

BackgroundThis study intended to investigate whether residence in areas polluted by heavy industry, waste incineration, a high density of traffic and housing or intensive use of pesticides, could contribute to the high incidence of cancer observed in Flanders.

MethodsSubjects were 1583 residents aged 50–65 from 9 areas with different types of pollution. Cadmium, lead, p,p-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, PCBs and dioxin-like activity Calux test were measured in blood, and cadmium, t,t-muconic acid and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. Effect biomarkers were prostate specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and p53 protein serum levels, number of micronuclei per 1000 binucleated peripheral blood cells, DNA damage comet assay in peripheral blood cells and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in urine. Confounding factors were taken into account.

ResultsOverall significant differences between areas were found for carcinoembryonic antigen, micronuclei, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and DNA damage. Compared to a rural area with mainly fruit production, effect biomarkers were often significantly elevated around waste incinerators, in the cities of Antwerp and Ghent, in industrial areas and also in other rural areas. Within an industrial area DNA strand break levels were almost three times higher close to industrial installations than 5 kilometres upwind of the main industrial installations p < 0.0001. Positive exposure-effect relationships were found for carcinoembryonic antigen urinary cadmium, t,t-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene and blood lead, micronuclei PCB118, DNA damage PCB118 and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine t,t-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene. Also, we found significant associations between values of PSA above the p90 and higher values of urinary cadmium, between values of p53 above the p90 and higher serum levels of p,p-DDE, hexachlorobenzene and marker PCBs PCB 138, 153 and 180 and between serum levels of p,p-DDE above the p90 and higher serum values of carcinoembryonic antigen. Significant associations were also found between effect biomarkers and occupational or lifestyle parameters.

ConclusionLevels of internal exposure, and residence near waste incinerators, in cities, or close to important industries, but not in areas with intensive use of pesticides, showed positive correlations with biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis and thus probably contribute to risk of cancer. In some rural areas, the levels of these biomarkers were not lower than in the rest of Flanders.

List of abbreviations1-OHP1-hydroxypyrene

ANCOVAanalysis of covariance

ANOVAanalysis of variance

BMIbody mass index

Cdcadmium

CEAcarcinoembryonic antigen

crtcreatinin

FLEHSFlemish Environment and Health Survey

GC-ECDgas chromatography – electron capture detection

HCBhexachlorobenzene

HDG8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine

HPLChigh performance liquid chromatography

ICP-MSinductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry

Iexindex of internal exposure

p53p53 protein in serum

PAHspolyaromatic hydrocarbons

PCBpolychlorinated biphenyls

PCDD-FPolychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin-Polychlorinated Dibenzofuran

PLSDPhisher protected least significant difference

PSAprostate specific antigen

SCGEsingle cell gel electrophoresis

TEQtoxic equivalent

ttMAt,t-muconic acid

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1476-069X-7-26 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Autor: Sam De Coster - Gudrun Koppen - Marc Bracke - Carmen Schroijen - Elly Den Hond - Vera Nelen - Els Van de Mieroop - Liesbeth

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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