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Cancer Microenvironment

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 37–42

First Online: 29 February 2008Received: 31 December 2007Accepted: 28 January 2008DOI: 10.1007-s12307-008-0005-4

Cite this article as: Zeromski, J., Mozer-Lisewska, I. & Kaczmarek, M. Cancer Microenvironment 2008 1: 37. doi:10.1007-s12307-008-0005-4


Toll-like receptors TLRs are considered now as crucial sensors of innate immunity. Their role in the recognition of pathogens and the initiation of adaptive immune responses against them is well known. However, in last years TLRs have been identified on several tumor cells, including human malignancies. Their expression in cancer was found to be twofold: either promoting or inhibiting tumor progression. It was also demonstrated that several TLRs agonists, either natural or synthetic ones, may have beneficial effect on tumor-mediated disease, leading to potentiation of immune response to tumor-associated antigens. TLR-agonist linked tumor immunotherapy is still in nascent state, but growing rapidly, also in the area of common human malignancies. To date, the most promising and the most frequently studied interaction in tumor immunotherapy trials seems to be TLR9 and its synthetic agonists.

KeywordsToll-like receptors Pathogen-associated molecular patterns Innate immunity Signaling Tumor cells Agonists AbbreviationsTLRsToll-like receptors

PRRspattern recognition receptors

TIRToll-interleukin-1 receptor domain

PAMPspathogen associated molecular patterns


MyD88myeloid differentiation factor 88

IRAKinterleukin-1 receptor associated kinase

MAPKmitogen-activated protein kinase

NF-κBnuclear factor κB

AP-1activated protein-1

HSPheat shock proteins

HNSCChead and neck squamous cell carcinoma

TRIFTIR domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-β

IRF3interferon regulatory factor 3

SIGIRRsingle immunoglobulin IL-1-related protein

TollipToll-interacting protein

TNFtumor necrosis factor

TRAFTNF receptor-associated factor

TRAILTNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand

TGFβtransforming growth factor-β


MALP-2macrophage activating lipopeptide-2

RAC1ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1


AKTv-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1

TIRAPToll-interleukin 1 receptor TIR domain containing adaptor protein

FADDFas TNFRSF6-associated via death domain

TAKcyclin-dependent kinase 9

TABmitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein

IKKinhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells

TRAMToll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2

RIPralA-binding protein

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Autor: Jan Zeromski - Iwona Mozer-Lisewska - Mariusz Kaczmarek


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