Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadwaysReportar como inadecuado




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Injury Epidemiology

, 3:9

First Online: 01 April 2016Received: 30 November 2015Accepted: 27 February 2016DOI: 10.1186-s40621-016-0074-7

Cite this article as: Liu, C., Huang, Y. & Pressley, J.C. Inj. Epidemiol. 2016 3: 9. doi:10.1186-s40621-016-0074-7

Abstract

BackgroundWhile driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle MV crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and-or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash.

MethodsThe Fatality Analysis Reporting System FARS for 2008–2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations-errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs n = 79,932. Statistical analysis was based on Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Associations of restraint use and other outcomes with alcohol and drug use were measured by estimated odds ratios ORs and 95 % confidence intervals 95 % CIs.

ResultsMore than half 54.8 % of the study population were positive for drugs or alcohol at the time of crash. Approximately half of drivers were belted, but this varied from 67.1 % unimpaired to 33.0 % drugs plus alcohol. Compared to the unimpaired, the odds of a driver being unbelted varied: alcohol and cannabis OR 3.70, 95 % CI 3.44–3.97, alcohol only 3.50,3.36–3.65, stimulants 2.13,1.91–2.38, depressants 2.09,1.89–2.31, narcotics 1.84,1.67–2.02 and cannabis only 1.55,1.43–1.67. Compared to belted drivers, unbelted drivers were over 4 times more likely to die. Driving violations varied across drug-drug alcohol combinations. Speed-related violations were higher for drivers positive for stimulants, alcohol, cannabis, and cannabis plus alcohol, with a more than two fold increase for alcohol and cannabis 2.36, 2.05, 2.71.

ConclusionsMechanisms through which drugs, alcohol and substance combinations produce increased risks to occupant safety include lowered restraint use and increases in risky driving behaviors, including speeding, lane, passing, turning and signal-sign violations.

KeywordsMotor vehicle crash Seatbelt use Drugged and drunk driving  Download fulltext PDF



Autor: Chang Liu - Yanlan Huang - Joyce C. Pressley

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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