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Immunity and Ageing

, 13:18

First Online: 05 May 2016Received: 04 March 2016Accepted: 24 April 2016DOI: 10.1186-s12979-016-0073-0

Cite this article as: Magrone, T., Galantino, M., Di Bitonto, N. et al. Immun Ageing 2016 13: 18. doi:10.1186-s12979-016-0073-0

Abstract

BackgroundChronic upper respiratory tract infections cURTI are very frequent illnesses which occur at any age of life. In elderly, cURTI are complicated by immunosenescence, with involvement of lung immune responsiveness.

ResultsIn the present study, 51 elderly age range: 66–86 and 51 young age range 24–58 cURTI patients underwent a single cycle two weeks of inhalatory therapy with salt-bromide-iodine thermal water in the thermal station -Margherita di Savoia- Margherita di Savoia, BAT, Italy. Peripheral blood serum cytokines and clinical assessment were performed before therapy T0 and after six months T1 and 12 months T2 from inhalatory treatment. In both elderly and young patients, at baseline an increased release of T helper h1-related cytokines interleukin IL-2 and interferon-γ and of Th2-related cytokine IL-4 was documented. Inhalatory treatment reduced the excessive secretion of all the above-cited cytokines. IL-10 values were above normality at all times considered in both groups of patients. In addition, an increase in IL-17 and IL-21 serum levels following therapy was observed in both groups of patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α baseline values were lower than normal values at T0 in both elderly and young cURTI patients. Their levels increased following inhalatory treatment.

Clinically, at T2 a dramatic reduction of frequency of upper respiratory tract infections was recorded in both groups of patients.

ConclusionThermal water inhalation is able to modulate systemic immune response in elderly and young cURTI patients, thus reducing excessive production of Th1 and Th2-related cytokines, on the one hand. On the other hand, increased levels of IL-21 an inducer of Th17 cells and of IL-17 may be interpreted as a protective mechanism, which likely leads to neutrophil recruitment in cURTI patients. Also restoration of pro-inflammatory cytokine release following inhalatory therapy may result in microbe eradication. Quite importantly, the maintenance of high levels of IL-10 during the follow-up would suggest a consistent regulatory role of this cytokine in attenuating the pro-inflammatory arm of the immune response.

KeywordsAgeing Chronic upper respiratory tract infections Cytokines Thermal water inhalation AbbreviationsCOPDchronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CRSchronic rhinosinusitis

cURTIchronic upper respiratory tract infections

DCsdendritic cells

HSChematopoietic stem cell

IFNinterferon

ILinterleukin

ILCs2innate lymphoid cells 2

SIRsenescence immune remodeling

TNFtumor necrosis factor

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Autor: Thea Magrone - Mauro Galantino - Nunzio Di Bitonto - Luisella Borraccino - Gerardo Chiaromonte - Emilio Jirillo

Fuente: https://link.springer.com/







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