Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Yemeni children residing in malaria-endemic areas of Hodeidah governorate and evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for its detectionReportar como inadecuado




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Malaria Journal

, 15:327

Case Reports

Abstract

BackgroundGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency, the most common genetic enzymopathy worldwide, is associated with an acute haemolytic anaemia in individuals exposed to primaquine. The present study aimed to determine G6PD deficiency among Yemeni children in malaria-endemic areas as well as to assess the performance of the CareStart™ G6PD rapid diagnostic test RDT for its detection.

MethodsA cross-sectional study recruiting 400 children from two rural districts in Hodeidah governorate was conducted. Socio-demographic data and blood samples were collected and G6PD deficiency was qualitatively detected in fresh blood in the field using the CareStart™ G6PD RDT, while the enzymatic assay was used to quantitatively measure enzyme activity. Performance of the CareStart™ G6PD RDT was assessed by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value NPV, and positive predictive value PPV against the reference enzymatic assay.

ResultsThe ranges of enzyme activity were 0.14–18.45 and 0.21–15.94 units-g haemoglobin U-gHb for males and females, respectively. However, adjusted male median G6PD activity was 5.0 U-gHb. Considering the adjusted male median as representing 100 % normal enzyme activity, the prevalence rates of G6PD deficiency were 12.0 and 2.3 % at the cut-off activities of ≤60 and ≤10 %, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that gender, district of residence and consanguinity between parents were independent risk factors for G6PD deficiency at the cut-off activity of ≤30 % of normal. The CareStart™ G6PD RDT showed 100 % sensitivity and NPV for detecting G6PD deficiency at the cut-off activities of ≤10 and ≤20 % of normal activity compared to the reference enzymatic method. However, it showed specificity levels of 90.0 and 95.4 % as well as positive-deficient predictive values PPVs of 18.0 and 66.0 % at the cut-off activities of ≤10 and ≤20 %, respectively, compared to the reference method.

ConclusionsG6PD deficiency with enzyme activity of ≤60 % of normal is prevalent among 12.0 % of children residing in malaria-endemic areas of Hodeidah governorate, with 2.3 % having severe G6PD deficiency. Gender, district of residence and consanguinity between parents are significant independent predictors of G6PD deficiency at the cut-off activity of ≤30 % of normal among children in malaria-endemic areas of Hodeidah. The CareStart™ G6PD RDT proved reliable as a point-of-care test to screen for severely G6PD-deficient patients, with 100 % sensitivity and NPV, and it can be used for making clinical decisions prior to the administration of primaquine in malaria elimination strategies.

KeywordsGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Malaria Rapid diagnostic test Primaquine Yemen  Download fulltext PDF



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