Seasonal correlation of sporadic schizophrenia to Ixodes ticks and Lyme borreliosisReport as inadecuate

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International Journal of Health Geographics

, 1:2

First Online: 01 November 2002Received: 09 October 2002Accepted: 01 November 2002DOI: 10.1186-1476-072X-1-2

Cite this article as: Fritzsche, M. Int J Health Geogr 2002 1: 2. doi:10.1186-1476-072X-1-2


BackgroundBeing born in winter and spring is considered one of the most robust epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia. The aetiology and exact timing of this birth excess, however, has remained elusive so far. Since during phylogeny, Borrelia DNA has led to multiple germ-line mutations within the CB1 candidate gene for schizophrenia, a meta analysis has been performed of all papers on schizophrenic birth excesses with no less than 3000 cases each. All published numerical data were then plotted against the seasonal distributions of Ixodes ticks worldwide.

ResultsIn the United States, Europe and Japan the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodes ticks nine months earlier at the time of conception. South of the Wallace Line, which limits the spread of Ixodes ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi into Australia, seasonal trends are less significant, and in Singapore, being non-endemic for Ixodes ticks and Lyme disease, schizophrenic birth excesses are absent.

ConclusionAt present, it cannot be excluded that prenatal infection by B. burgdorferi is harmful to the implanting human blastocyst. The epidemiological clustering of sporadic schizophrenia by season and locality rather emphasises the risk to the unborn of developing a congenital, yet preventable brain disorder later in life.

List of abbreviationsDNADesoxyribonucleicacid

CB1Central cannabinoid receptor gene

HLAMajor histocompatibility complex

Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1476-072X-1-2 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Author: Markus Fritzsche


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