Is Nigeria winning the battle against malaria Prevalence, risk factors and KAP assessment among Hausa communities in Kano StateReport as inadecuate

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Malaria Journal

, 15:351

First Online: 08 July 2016Received: 19 April 2016Accepted: 15 June 2016DOI: 10.1186-s12936-016-1394-3

Cite this article as: Dawaki, S., Al-Mekhlafi, H.M., Ithoi, I. et al. Malar J 2016 15: 351. doi:10.1186-s12936-016-1394-3


BackgroundMalaria is one of the most severe global public health problems worldwide, particularly in Africa, where Nigeria has the greatest number of malaria cases. This community-based study was designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of malaria and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices KAP regarding malaria among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria.

MethodsA cross-sectional community-based study was conducted on 551 participants from five local government areas in Kano State. Blood samples were collected and examined for the presence of Plasmodium species by rapid diagnostic test RDT, Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films, and PCR. Moreover, demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire.

ResultsA total of 334 60.6 % participants were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. The prevalence differed significantly by age group p < 0.01, but not by gender or location. A multivariate analysis showed that malaria was associated significantly with being aged 12 years or older, having a low household family income, not using insecticide treated nets ITNs, and having no toilets in the house. Overall, 95.6 % of the respondents had prior knowledge about malaria, and 79.7, 87.6 and 95.7 % of them knew about the transmission, symptoms, and prevention of malaria, respectively. The majority 93.4 % of the respondents considered malaria a serious disease. Although 79.5 % of the respondents had at least one ITN in their household, utilization rate of ITNs was 49.5 %. Significant associations between the respondents’ knowledge concerning malaria and their age, gender, education, and household monthly income were reported.

ConclusionsMalaria is still highly prevalent among rural Hausa communities in Nigeria. Despite high levels of knowledge and attitudes in the study area, significant gaps persist in appropriate preventive practices, particularly the use of ITNs. Innovative and Integrated control measures to reduce the burden of malaria should be identified and implemented in these communities. Community mobilization and health education regarding the importance of using ITNs to prevent malaria and save lives should be considered.

KeywordsMalaria Epidemiology Prevalence Knowledge Attitude Practice Nigeria AbbreviationsKAPknowledge, attitudes and practices

ITNsinsecticide-treated nets

WHOWorld Health Organization

NMCPNational Malaria Control Programme

RDTrapid diagnostic test

NGNNigerian Naira

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Author: Salwa Dawaki - Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi - Init Ithoi - Jamaiah Ibrahim - Wahib M. Atroosh - Awatif M. Abdulsalam - Hany Sad


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